Hyperextension is considered a universal simulator for strength training aimed at strengthening the muscles of the back , buttocks and hips. It is used as an independent element of the program or for preheating muscles before a deadlift.
- What muscles work
- Exercise Equipment
- Technique of execution on the simulator
- For the back, strengthening the muscles of the spine
- For abdominal muscles
- With additional weights
- Direct hyperextension
- Reverse hyperextension
- Options and techniques for performing a house without a simulator
- For the back, strengthening the muscles of the spine
- For buttocks and thighs
- On fitball
- The main mistakes when doing the exercise
- Hyperextension Video
What muscles work
The following body muscles work during hyperextension:
- Extensors of the spine. The main task in the exercise is to tilt the body in a given direction and stabilize it.
- The gluteus maximus muscle. In a static position provides tension to the thigh and maintaining a vertical position of the body; when moving, it is responsible for hip bending.
- Thigh biceps (biceps femoris). The function in the exercise is the extension of the body with the legs fixed in a fixed position.
- Semi-membranous thigh muscles. They help the gluteus maximus muscle to straighten the trunk with the shin fixed.
- Semi-tendon muscles of the thigh. Extend the torso in cooperation with the gluteus maximus muscle.
In the gym, there are 2 options for back extension: a special simulator and a Roman chair.
- The simulator is a steel frame equipped with stops for feet, a pair of rollers for fixing the legs and a soft seat, in which the athlete rests against the front surface of the thighs. The frame has a diagonal slope, which reduces the load on the vertebral section.
- Roman chair. It differs from the simulator in the horizontal arrangement of the body on it: legs are fixed parallel to the floor surface in the ankle area with special rollers; there is no stop for the feet.
- Exercise machine for reverse hyperextension. When this option is performed, it’s not the body body that is moving, but the legs, so the design has differences. It is a steel frame with a horizontal seat and handles for fixing hands.
At home, improvised means are used:
- horizontal bench with a strap securing the feet;
- sofa (here you will need a partner who sits on his feet for fixation);
If training is carried out sports grounds, then parallel bars of different heights are used to perform hyperextension.
Technique of execution on the simulator
For the back, strengthening the muscles of the spine
Before starting work, adjust the simulator according to your height: the platform for hips should be below the ilium of the pelvis – this position provides a free range of motion without pressure on the abdominal press.
- They are located on the simulator, resting the front surface of the thighs in the platform, the legs are placed on the stops, under the fixing rollers. Some models of simulators do not have rollers – the foot is held with the help of a side on the footrest. The body is straightened in one line, the body is held by muscle strength. Beginners fold their arms over their chests, crossing them: more trained athletes put their palms on the back of their head.
- From the starting position, lower the body down, keeping the spine straight; take a breath at the same time. The legs remain straight; movements should be smooth and slow. The body forms an angle of approximately 90 ° with the legs. This tilt option is designed for athletes with strong and healthy back muscles; with problems with the spine, the angle is reduced.
- On exhalation, they return to the starting position.
For a deep study of the extensors, the back is held in a straight position throughout the exercise: as soon as the spine is rounded, the load is shifted to the hips and buttocks.
For abdominal muscles
Hyperextension is a simulator that is not used to work out the rectus abdominis muscle: the very location of the body on the simulator and the amplitude of the movement do not imply the twisting of the spine necessary for its development.
In the process of bending and unbending the body, this group receives an insignificant part of the load, but for targeted work, another complex of elements should be selected.
To strengthen the oblique muscles, use the lateral version:
- Placed on the simulator on the left side of the body. The left leg is fixed under the roller, the right leg is placed on top of it. The thigh rests against the platform, the body is in the air. The left palm is placed on the right side, the elbow is pressed tightly to the body. The right palm is placed on the head.
- On exhalation, the right leg is bent at the knee, and stretched toward the head.
- At the same time, they twist the body, pulling the elbow of the right hand towards the right knee.
- On inspiration, they straighten and lower their leg, the body is twisted down, behind the platform of the simulator. The angle of inclination does not exceed 40 °.
The movements are dynamic; after making the required number of approaches, turn around on the other side, and repeat the exercise for the second side of the body.
With additional weights
Hyperextension with additional weights increases the load on the target muscles.
The technique is the same as in the classic version; when working take into account the following features:
- The dumbbell or pancake from the bar most often acts as a weighting agent. The sports equipment is held with two hands: the pancake is placed on the elbow bends and the arms cross, holding it tightly to the chest. The load is concentrated in the lower part of the extensors of the back.
- A less common version of the weighting agent is the neck: it is placed on the shoulders so that it touches the trapezoid and deltoid muscles of the shoulders. The load in this case is shifted to the middle section of the extensor spine.
- If the weight is chosen incorrectly, the athlete cannot straighten into the starting position, or does so with violations of technique. Rounding of the lower back, displacement of the body also indicates a heavy weight. The center of gravity should be shifted to the heels.
- A look is directed forward; neck rounding is not allowed due to the risk of injury.
At the initial stages of training, when the back muscles are still too weak, weights are not used.
This version of the exercise is performed
on the Roman chair: its design allows you to move in increased amplitude, working out all the muscles that stretch along the spinal column.
- They are located on the simulator so that the legs are horizontal to the floor. Ankles are fixed under the rollers, the body is kept on weight, hands are folded on the chest.
- On inspiration, they lower, dragging the body down a lot.
- On the exhale, they straighten, returning to the starting position.
This embodiment is suitable for people with an absolutely healthy back: a strong stretch of the lower part of the body can increase microtrauma of the spinal column.
Reverse hyperextension is designed to work out the muscles of the back of the thighs and buttocks. To perform use a horizontal bench or simulator.
- Lie belly on the seat so that the pelvis and legs remain free to hang in the air. If the training is carried out on a bench, then the hands tightly grasp the seat, fixing the body in a fixed position. The simulators have special handles on which palms are placed, elbows firmly abut against the surface of the platform.
- Straight legs are brought together, and raised to parallel with the floor.
- They return the legs to the starting position, and without putting them on the floor, repeat the exercise.
Some simulators designed for reverse hyperextension have a movable frame with rollers that fix the ankles. The upward movement of the legs is not in free amplitude, but according to the trajectory of the frame, which allows you to keep the limbs in a straight position.
Options and techniques for performing a house without a simulator
For the back, strengthening the muscles of the spine
Hyperextension is a small-sized simulator, but it can be difficult to fit it into an apartment, so at home for workouts use improvised furniture of a suitable size.
- For direct hyperextension, two stable stools put together are suitable. Lie on the seat with your hips, leaving the body to hang freely in the air. It is important to take care of reliable fixation of the ankles: use the help of a second person; find stable and durable furniture, under which it will be possible to place the foot; tighten around the ankles and under the seat a strong belt
- Lower the body, keeping the back straight, arms cross on the chest. In a horizontal position, tilting at a right angle will be difficult, so in the first stages you can perform movement in a shortened amplitude.
- They return to the starting position, straightening the body to parallel with the floor. You should not take it above the stool.
For buttocks and thighs
Reverse hyperextension will help to strengthen the muscles of the hips and buttocks. A couple of stools put together are also used to complete it. They should be placed so that in front of the edge of one of them there is a reliable support for the hands: it can be a turned-off heating battery, the back of a sofa or the edge of a heavy coffee table.
- Lie belly on the seats of stools, hands are fixed on the support, straight legs hold the canopy 0’8 – 1’2 inch from the floor.
- Raise legs to a parallel line with the floor. The body is pressed firmly against the stools, preventing the lower back from bending.
- Lower their legs, and without touching the surface of the floor, repeat the movement.
If you have a large gymnastic ball at home, you can perform hyperextension on it.
- They rest against the ball with the hips so as to be able to bend freely in the hip joints. The feet are fixed in the area of the heels or ankles under a stable object; you should not push them against the wall: the body will outweigh and the ball will slip out from under the athlete.
- Hands are folded on the chest, lower the body, keeping the back straight.
- Return to the starting position, controlling the position of the ball. Any inaccurate movement may cause a fall.
To perform, you will need a gymnastic rug or a soft blanket, the exercise is performed on a hard surface.
- Lie on your stomach, legs straighten, arms stretch forward.
- At the same time raise their arms and legs up, bending in the back.
- Hold the position for 10 seconds.
- Relax, lowering limbs to the floor.
The main mistakes when doing the exercise
Common mistakes made by athletes include:
- A wide range of movements, in which the body is strongly pulled to the legs, or, conversely, throws back during a reverse movement.
- Bending the legs at the knees, in which the load goes to the auxiliary muscles.
- Wave your hands. The limbs are crossed on the chest or placed on the back of the head. Do not grip your fingers in a hard lock.
- Excessive burden. Work with weighting materials is postponed to normal strengthening of the back muscles when working with the weight of your own body. In the future, the weight is gradually increased, starting with a weight of 2 -4 pounds.
- Attempts to help yourself by swinging the hull. With weak muscles, it is difficult for a beginner to rise on his own, so he unconsciously sways the body to return to the starting position. To avoid this error, it is best to start execution with a small amplitude.
The movements are performed smoothly, avoiding jerking; Beginners in the first classes observe a slow pace; further training is more dynamic.
Hyperextension is a simulator suitable for both beginners and advanced athletes, but there are limitations on its use:
- Intervertebral hernia is a contraindication to self-exercise. If it is available, it is recommended to carry out the training program drawn up by the physical therapy instructor and under his guidance.
- For injuries of the lumbosacral spine before training, you need to consult your doctor. Despite the use of hyperextension in rehabilitation programs, it creates a compression load on the spine, which can worsen the patient’s condition.
- In case of back pain and problems with the lower back, the “boat” option is recommended for execution, and only with the strengthening of the muscles do they switch to more serious loads.
Hyperextension is a universal simulator designed for both women and men. Differences in technology help to achieve two main goals: to create a strong back – for men; and tighten the gluteal muscles – for women.
Technique of the exercise: