Long-distance running has recently become widespread. He develops a commitment to a healthy lifestyle and is the best type of cardio training .
- The benefits and harms of long-distance running
- Long distance – how many foot, mile> A long distance is considered to be a race with a length of more than 9842’5 foot. This distance is classic, but there are other distances with a length of 9 – 19 mile. Runs for 7 – 25 mile, which are held exclusively on highway surfaces, are usually called a marathon. Long-distance running develops endurance and is one of the disciplines of the Summer Olympic Games. What develops long-distance running There is no doubt that running is the best and most effective exercise for cardio workouts. It has a positive effect on improving the functions of all human organs. Speed, endurance, flexibility, dexterity All these qualities apply to people who regularly engage in long-distance running. The initial forms of these complexes of the functional properties of the human body are acquired with regular physical exertion and increase in parallel with the length of sports. Heart, vessels Despite the fact that the heart is the most trained muscle of the human body, it also needs constant training to maintain tone. People who have a place for sports and running in their lives are less likely to have heart attacks (strokes) and other heart diseases. Lungs With intensive breathing, characteristic of long-distance running, the alveoli of the lungs increase, as a result of which the rhythm of breathing changes. During a long run, an oxygen debt arises in the body, which is intensively compensated after the run is completed. Through this, the structure of the capillaries of the lungs develops and their work is stimulated. Liver, intestines When running loads in the liver, the processes of cell regeneration and renewal are launched. During intense breathing, the walls of the diaphragm contract, which puts pressure on the liver, irritating it. At the same time, the intestinal walls are stimulated due to its simultaneous irritation and an increase in the general body temperature. This helps to accelerate the metabolism and excretion of waste products. Metabolism, Fat Burning Long-distance running develops a short-term energy deficit, which is compensated by lipolysis (fat breakdown). The first 30 minutes after the start of physical activity, the body gets rid of glucose stores, only then does the breakdown of fats begin. Therefore, long-distance running is especially good for weight loss. Long running helps to speed up metabolism, which also contributes to weight loss. In addition to physiological aspects, running helps to develop moral and volitional qualities, such as: Willpower. Constant self-motivation and the desire to adhere to it. The ability to set goals and fulfill them. The pursuit of continuous self-improvement. Overcoming difficulties and barriers. For best results, long-distance running is best in the company. This will be better in terms of motivation for each other, as well as for security reasons. Long distance running technique Athletes running longer distances (from 9842’5 foot) are called styers, hence the long-distance running itself is called styer. He requires a participant in the race to have a high level of development of general physical endurance and mastery of the basic principles of running technique. Long-distance running includes 3 stages, which are the main elements of technology: Stage name Execution technique Start and starting acceleration At this stage, the runners start and start the run. The highest speed is precisely on this segment of the starting acceleration, the length of which is from 196’9 – 262’5 foot. The further speed of passing the distance should be less than the starting one. Participants try to take the positions that are most convenient for themselves in the leading group (for the subsequent imposition of a struggle), or save strength and move to the second group of pursuers. Distance running The main characteristic of this stage is an even running pace with constantly changing leaders. Athletes give rest to each other, giving way to the first position, not looking up from each other. It is extremely rare that a runner who was in the lead after stage 1 comes to the finish line also first. The step size when running ranges from 3’6 – 5’2 foot and depends on the growth of the athlete. At marathon distances, the step length decreases. Finish Approximately 131’2 foot before the end of the course, the finishing stage begins. The leading group of athletes is accelerating, including about 80% of the power reserves. At this moment, there is a restructuring and a change of leaders, which is most actively manifested in the last 164 foot of the distance. It is on this segment that all athletes go to the finishing gain, which is called spurt. Preparing for a long run Long distance running consists of 4 training methods. Such training gradually develops the athlete’s speed-power qualities necessary for running at a distance of more than 9842’5 foot. The load is distributed over time periods (days, weeks), which allows you to plan for the run without overloads. Remote training. They are the largest stage of preparation (up to 70% of the total load) and are reduced to running with the maximum contraction of the heart muscle (up to 80% of its limit) in a limited period of time (from 30 to 50 minutes). Threshold training. They consist in regular repetition of a distance of 164 – 4921’3 foot with short interruptions (up to 1 min) and maximum loads on the heart muscle (up to 80%). At this stage, anaerobic metabolism training (exercise tolerance with oxygen debt) occurs. The goal of the stage is to delay the onset of the anaerobic threshold as much as possible. Interval training. The athlete moves the distance at a certain pace and in areas limited in time or distance, begins to accelerate. After passing this section (or after the acceleration time has elapsed), the previous pace resumes. Speed training. The distance used for this stage is divided into segments of about 1312’3 – 1640’4 foot in size. The athlete is faced with the task of running each segment for several seconds faster than during a full distance race. At this stage, high-speed power endurance is training. The correct setting of the legs The method of setting legs when running long distances causes a lot of controversy and discussion. There is no consensus on this. It is customary to distinguish 3 options for setting legs when landing: On the toe (this technique of running is called “from the heel”). In contact with the ground, the athlete’s foot lowers onto the metatarsus or cushion of the foot. On the heel (the technique was called “off the toe”). The runner’s foot lands on the heel. To the foot. A less common way is when the athlete’s foot completely touches the ground with its entire plane. None of the methods can be called technology as such, since it implies a complex of uniform cyclical biomechanical movements. The athlete, depending on his anthropometric indicators, individually selects the style of contact of the foot with the ground. Correct torso position, hand movement Long-distance running implies minimal body movement while running. The back is in a straight position, but tilted forward at an angle of 5-7 °. This is necessary to give the body inertia to move forward and maintain speed with less effort. During the passage of the distance, it is necessary to limit the movement of the head in order to concentrate. Turns and tilting of the head should be excluded. Most professional athletes have developed peripheral vision, which allows them not to be distracted by stimuli. Long-distance running not only develops the muscles of the legs, hands during training are also actively involved. For the effective use of the hands, they need to be bent at the elbow and moved parallel to the body, elbow to the outside. With the right technique, hands accelerate by increasing the stride frequency. Breathing technique When running long distances, it is important to breathe fully to fully utilize the diaphragm. The breathing rhythm should be monotonous and not inconsistent. It is optimal to use the stomach: on inhalation, it should protrude forward, on exhalation, return to its original position. Exhalation (possible through the mouth) should be shorter than the inhalation. The most suitable breathing pattern for a long run: 2 steps – inhale, 4 steps – full exhalation. Psychological attitude On the eve of an important long-distance race, it is better to protect yourself from possible stressful situations, to devote time to moral and psychological preparation. It is important to follow the 4 postulates that psychologists attribute to running: Running is equivalent to a psychologist’s session. Running is a source of joy. Running helps communication. Running gives confidence. Main mistakes Ignoring the basic rules and techniques of long-distance running leads to a decrease in performance and the abandonment of leading positions. The main mistakes (excluding the improper selection of equipment and shoes) are: Tightened starting acceleration. Acceleration too fast. Inconsistent irregular breathing or incomplete breathing. Incorrect positioning of the body, deflection in the lower back or a strong inclination of the body forward. Improper hand amplitude or bend angle. Too wide a step when passing the distance. Large physical activities on the eve of the race adve rsely affect the result. Therefore, most athletes, on the eve of the competition, arrange a “day of silence” with the goal of complete relaxation. How often can you run long distances With good body training, there are no restrictions on distance and frequency. It is recommended for beginners and amateurs to increase the distance gradually, allowing the body to get used to the increasing load. Long-distance running helps the body launch the function of self-purification. He develops the process of autophagy (removal of dysfunctional components), in which blood cells begin to remove unnecessary material that can harm the body. It can be dead parts of the membrane, viruses and bacteria, parts of non-decayed proteins. All unnecessary material, when exposed to physical activity, is burned, turning into the necessary energy. A Beginner’s Run Basics Video How to run:
- What develops long-distance running
- Speed, endurance, flexibility, dexterity
- Heart, vessels
- Liver, intestines
- Metabolism, Fat Burning
- Long distance running technique
- Preparing for a long run
- The correct setting of the legs
- Correct torso position, hand movement
- Breathing technique
- Psychological attitude
- Main mistakes
- How often can you run long distances
- A Beginner’s Run Basics Video
The benefits and harms of long-distance running
The health and fitness of people involved in jogging is much better than those who lead a static lifestyle.
The positive effects of running are expressed in the following factors:
- General healing and strengthening of the body. The accelerated metabolism allows the body to quickly get rid of harmful waste products, saturates the blood with oxygen, energizes for a long time.
- Stress relief and normalization of the psychological background. Helps in the fight against depressive states, develops willpower and pep. Psychologists advise unorganized and lazy people to engage in daily jogging. They change lifestyle, lead to daily organization and planning. Evening runs relieve fatigue and stress after a working day.
- Improving reproductive function in women. With a long run, the blood is saturated with oxygen and supplies the internal organs with the necessary nutrients. For women who are planning a pregnancy, running is the best way to prepare for it.
- Beautiful body and muscle relief for men. In the process of running, almost all the muscles of the person work. If this load is constant, then the muscle tissue gains mass and brings the body into a beautiful shape.
- Reduces body fat and promotes weight loss. When running long distances, not only the muscles of the legs, but also the muscles of the abdominal cavity, arms, and back work intensively. 1 hour of running can burn about 800 kcal. This result can only be achieved with the help of a jump rope.
For a healthy body, physical activity is useful, but if there are diseases, they must be treated with caution. Before you start playing sports, it is better to get a consultation with a doctor.
Long-distance running can negatively affect the body, as it increases the load on the following organs:
- Joints of the legs. To use long-distance running for weight loss, you need to consider body weight. If it is too large, then such physical exertion can lead to premature wear, as well as joint pain at the end of the workout.
- Cardiovascular system. Long-term physical activity speeds up contractions of the heart muscle. Untrained people and those with diseases of the cardiovascular system risk getting shortness of breath and hypoxia.
- Chronic diseases When running, both positive and negative processes in the body are accelerated.