For the full functioning of the body, a person needs to consume nutrients daily, which contain proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The main building material for the body and organs is protein. Its functions affect the development, movement, growth and protective abilities of the human body.
- Squirrels – what is it
- Organization Levels
- Primary protein structure
- Secondary protein structure
- Tertiary protein structure
- Quaternary protein structure
- Protein functions in the body
- The catalytic function of protein
- Protein structural function
- Protein Protective Function
- Protein regulatory function
- Protein signaling function
- Protein Transport Function
- Reserve (reserve) protein function
- Protein receptor function
- Motor (motor) function of protein
- What types of proteins exist
- Classification by structure
- Protein and Nitrogen Balance
- Amino acids in proteins
- Protein deficiency: causes, signs
- Protein excess: causes, symptoms
- Protein Norms for an Adult
- Proper protein nutrition for the body
- Features of protein nutrition for muscle growth
- Protein Products Table
- Menu for the week
- Features of protein nutrition, dieters
- Video about the functions of proteins in the body
Squirrels – what is it
Proteins are high molecular elements of an organic nature. They include alpha amino acids peptide-linked in a sequential chain. In the body of an individual, not all amino acids necessary for the full functioning of the body are produced.
The missing amount comes with protein products. In the process of digesting food, the protein breaks down into amino acid elements involved in the body’s release of its own protein or conversion into energy.
By organization level, proteins are divided into 4 structures:
Primary protein structure
The primary structure is an elementary amino acid chain of a linear type, connected by a polypeptide bond. A feature of this structure is a stable compound of the residual parts of the amino acid that perform special functions in the composition of proteins.
The primary structure is determined by the sequential placement of amino acid or nucleotide combinations using the tabular data of the genetic code.
Secondary protein structure
The secondary structure is a method of forming an ordered chain of elementary compounds using the group interaction of amino acid substances linked by hydrogen compounds. There are 2 options for the secondary structure: spiral (rope) and folded (accordion). Both types are found in proteins, but the proportion is different.
Tertiary protein structure
Tertiary structure – the components of the secondary structure, which are connected by different interacting processes with an insulating function of water. This structure can be determined through x-ray analysis or microscopy.
Quaternary protein structure
The quaternary structure is a combination of several amino acid compounds in a single protein after its complete processing in the body. In the formation of the Quaternary and Tertiary levels, the same types of relationships take part.
Protein functions in the body
The functions of proteins in the human body are in its participation in metabolism. As part of the cells, the protein acts as a signal to start the decomposition of food, interact with water and create between the cellular matter.
Due to the wide range of effects on the body, proteins are conditionally divided by function.
The catalytic function of protein
The catalytic function is provided by special elements – enzymes that affect the quality and duration of chemical reactions under the influence of some elementary compounds. Enzymes are simple and complex.
The simple ones are composed of residual amino acids, and the complex ones have protein elements that interact with organic and inorganic substances.
The catalytic function of the protein is responsible for the processing and release of substances that enter the body at a suitable temperature, pressure and acid-tin balance.
Protein structural function
The structural function is construction. It consists in the location of the protein in the cells, giving them shape or changing them. Proteins form a connecting substance, which is part of the hair, nails and more. This function includes: keratin, collagen, elastin.
Protein Protective Function
The protective function of the protein is to prevent damage to the body by external and internal foreign compounds.
The functions of proteins in the human body are 3 types:
- Physical . The cells are mechanically supported, and blood coagulation and wound healing are also provided.
- Chemical . Proteins help cleanse the body by binding toxins and removing them.
- The immune . Proteins destroy bacteria, viruses and foreign proteins that enter the body.
Protein regulatory function
The regulatory function is to regulate the metabolic cycles, control the growth, development and fertility of the body by connecting with other proteins to activate or suppress them.
Protein signaling function
The signal function is the ability of a protein to carry signal impulses between cells to activate or cancel the body’s vital processes. Signal function provides the interaction of the immune, endocrine and nervous systems.
Protein Transport Function
The transport function is the ability of protein bonds to transfer the necessary elements from one organ to another during the metabolic processes of the body or respiration, and also provides the connection of all cells with the environment.
Reserve (reserve) protein function
The reserve function is performed by proteins, which are reserved as an energy source and accumulate in the cells the necessary substances for metabolism: water, iron, oxygen and others.
Protein receptor function
Receptor function is activated by mechanical (light) or chemical action on protein receptors that are inside the cell.
It consists in the reception, detention and transmission of signals from the external environment to the authorities to activate or terminate any process.
Motor (motor) function of protein
The motor function provides all movement in the human mass with special contractile elements. Processes such as muscle contraction, movement of cells (leukocytes), eyelash closure, and intracellular circulation are directly related to motor functions.
The process of movement is due to the ability of a protein to convert chemical energy (substances in the body) into mechanical work (contraction, flexion, compression, and others).
What types of proteins exist
Proteins take part in the life of the human body, divided into types according to the type of functions:
- Structural proteins act as building blocks for different body tissues, giving them shape, power and elasticity.
- Transport proteins transport nutrients and nutrients throughout the body, penetrating into inaccessible places.
- Receptor proteins , located between the cell membranes, bind to nutrients and carry them inside the same cells. A large role is played in the process of development of the fetus within the mother, providing it with all the necessary components.
- Contractile proteins set in motion the whole organism, starting from cells and ending with the whole body as a whole.
Regulatory proteins are responsible
for complete metabolic processes in the body.
- Protective proteins contribute to the confrontation of the body and its protection against viruses, germs and infections.
- Enzymes are proteins that are responsible for the course of all reactions within cells, stimulate metabolism.
Classification by structure
By the type of structure, proteins are divided into simple and complex. Simple proteins are proteins that contain amino acid residues (the main components of the protein). They are found in eggs, milk, beans and vegetable crops.
Complex proteins are proteids that contain the main protein component and non-protein formation (acids, fats, carbohydrates), during the interaction of which vital human development and strengthening cycles take place.
Several types of complex proteins were distinguished, depending on the composition:
- Glycoproteins – are composed of amino acids and carbohydrates.
- Nucleoproteins are the union of amino acids and nucleic acids.
- Lipoproteins – the interaction of the main protein component and fats.
- Phosphorus proteides – contains amino acid and phosphoric acid.
- Chromo proteides – the interaction of protein matter and metal-containing elements.
Proteins are also divided into animals – they are in the meat of animals, their blood and skin and supporting tissues, and vegetable – are part of plant crops.
Protein and Nitrogen Balance
Proteins and nitrogen balance are directly related. Nitrogen balance is the ratio of the intake of nitrogen into the body with food and the removal from it in the process of life. The main supplier of nitrogen is protein. During the breakdown of protein products, a certain amount of nitrogen is released into the body.
With the normal interaction of all organs and a balanced diet, this amount of nitrogen substance is completely eliminated from the body.
The process is called nitrogen balance, during which nothing happens to the human body (height and weight are in place). Nitrogen balance is positive (anabolism) and negative (catabolism). Positive – the amount of nitrogen supplied is greater than its removal. It promotes muscle, hair and nail growth.
Negative nitrogen balance – the amount of nitrogen removed from the body exceeds its entry into it . This process occurs when there is insufficient intake of complete proteins with food.
Over time, protein starvation occurs, which entails significant loss of body weight, muscle weakness, hair loss and sagging skin. The functions of proteins in the human body are beneficial, but only with a balanced interaction with other elements.
Amino acids in proteins
Amino acids are the necessary elements for the development of individuals that are in proteins and enter the body during its processing.
Amino acids are necessary for:
- muscle development;
- fat burning;
- skin elasticity and more.
Amino acids are divided into interchangeable and irreplaceable. The second – enter the body with food, the body does not independently produce it. The first – arise in organs in the process of interaction of various elements, can also come from the external environment.
Protein deficiency: causes, signs
The functions of proteins in the human body in case of violation cause a protein deficiency – a disease associated with its rapid breakdown into elements or a deficiency of its intake from food. 2 types of insufficiency were distinguished: primary and secondary. Primary protein deficiency occurs when there is a small ingestion of protein substances into the body from the external environment.
The risk group includes people who eat poorly, practice various diets and refuse to eat animals of animal origin.
Secondary deficiency develops in people with accelerated protein digestion. The causes are various diseases provoked by various infections, pathologies of the kidneys or hereditary ailments that disrupt metabolic processes.
Signs of protein deficiency:
- fast weight loss;
- deterioration of hair condition;
- peeling of the skin;
- weakness and dizziness;
- muscle pain
- mood swings;
- the appearance of flatulence;
- irregular stools;
- enlarged liver.
The treatment of this disease is aimed at increasing the number of protein elements in the body and normalizing its metabolism. Also, the underlying disease that triggered a protein deficiency is treated.
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Protein excess: causes, symptoms
Protein excess – excessive accumulation in the body of its processed products. The main reason for the appearance of an excess of protein is an unhealthy diet, in which the intake of protein foods significantly prevails over carbohydrate and fatty foods.
At risk for the disease fall lovers of meat food or people who practice protein diets. Also, an excess of protein is provoked by the presence of diseases of the endocrine system, genetic abnormalities or metabolic disorders. An excess of proteins disrupts the functioning of human organs and leads to a malfunction in the vital systems.
Symptoms highlighting the presence of a problem are highlighted:
- joint pain;
- tooth decay;
- decreased immunity;
- lower back pain;
- weight gain;
- fatigue and others.
Excess protein can trigger a heart attack. If you have symptoms of an excess of protein, you must exclude protein products from the diet and undergo treatment.
Protein Norms for an
The average protein for an adult is 85 g per day with measured activity. Protein is absorbed by the body by 80% from animal foods and 60% from plant foods. The norm of protein consumption of an individual is calculated, coming out of two factors: the weight of a person and his physical employment.
- With a sedentary lifestyle, the need for protein is 1 g per 2 pounds of weight.
- At medium loads (going to the gym 1–2 times a week or active rest on weekends, daily walks) – 2g per 1kg of weight.
- With hard training and hard work – 3g per 1kg of human weight.
The norms of protein consumption depend on the individual characteristics of the individual. Everyone can control the amount of use of the necessary substance on their own, listening to personal needs and paying attention to signs and symptoms.
Proper protein nutrition for the body
Proteins are the main element for the development, renewal and normalization of the functioning of the body.
To maintain the beauty and health of the body, it is necessary to follow the rules of protein nutrition daily:
- Eat protein foods for breakfast, lunch and dinner in the required amount, taking into account lifestyle, age and gender.
- Increase protein intake depending on the desired result. Athletes need it more to gain muscle mass, losing weight – less.
- Monitor protein balance, violation of which leads to poor health and impaired organ function.
- Observe drinking regimen, consume at least 0,4 gallon of water per day. It participates in all processes of human life support and accelerates metabolism.
- Protein must enter the body from both animal and plant foods. Depending on the origin, the protein is characterized by functional effects on the body.
Features of protein nutrition for muscle growth
The human musculature is not strengthened and does not grow only from physical exertion. Positive muscle development depends on the interaction of training and nutrition. Protein acts as a building material for muscle growth. This is one of its functions for the human body.
To strengthen physical fitness, an athlete needs to consume, on average, 200 – 300 g of protein for men, 150 – 200 g of product for women. At the same time, it is not recommended to violate the balance ratio of BJU (proteins, fats, carbohydrates). Protein products in the diet should prevail two hours after training and a couple of hours before bedtime.
The best time for a carbohydrate meal is in the morning and 3 hours before a workout. The intake of fat occurs throughout the day in a minimal amount, and in the afternoon it is completely excluded.
Protein Products Table
The table shows the products whose protein composition is higher than in the rest, and they are necessary for the preparation of a daily diet for building muscle without causing damage to health.
|Product, 100g||Proteins, g||Fats, g||Carbohydrates, g||Daily consumption rate|
|Sea fish||9 – 40||0.5 – 20||0 – 4||250g|
|River fish||2 – 25||0.2 – 7||0||400g|
|Seafood||15 – 20||0.7 – 1||0.1 – 0.3||200g|
|Chicken egg||11||9||0.5||5 pieces.|
|Cottage cheese||20||1 – 18||2||250g|
|Sunflower seeds||20 – 30||35||10||20g|
|Green vegetables||0.8 – 3||0.1||2.2 – 11||200 – 400g|
|Dried fruits||2 – 6||0,1 – 3||49 – 79||50g|
Consumption rates per day (in the table) are information on the amount of product that can be consumed in finished form without harm to health by including it in the diet. From this list you can create a menu for the week for fat burning and the acquisition of embossed shapes.
Menu for the week
The basic nutritional rules for building muscle mass are to eat often, avoid sugar and salt, and drink plenty of water.
Approximate menu for the week:
|Day of the week||Breakfast||Snack||Dinner||Snack||Dinner|
|Monday||Buckwheat porridge on water + boiled egg + low-fat yogurt;||Nuts or seeds;||Boiled chicken + stewed vegetables;||Dried fruits;||Egg white omelet + kefir;|
|Tuesday||Oatmeal on the water + banana + low-fat kefir;||A handful of dried fruit;||Braised beef liver with vegetables;||Nuts or seeds;||Boiled chicken breast + low-fat yogurt;|
|Wednesday||Boiled rice + dried fruits + hard cheese + green tea;||Boiled fish;||Boiled chicken liver + egg white;||Low-fat steam cutlets – 2 pcs.;||Sea food + boiled eggs;|
|Thursday||Cottage cheese + low-fat yogurt + banana;||Egg omelet;||Jellied fish with gelatin;||Low-fat kefir + oat pancakes;||Baked veal with vegetables;|
|Friday||Any porridge on the water + vegetables + milk;||Chicken steam cutlets – 2 pcs.;||Vegetable casserole with veal;||Cottage cheese + banana;||Omelet + milk + sea kale;|
|Saturday||Any porridge + boiled fish + kefir;||Seafood;||Cottage cheese + banana;||Dried fruits;||Chicken paste + low-fat yogurt;|
|Sunday||Boiled eggs + cottage cheese + compote of dried fruits;||Low-fat yogurt + banana;||Boiled rice + chicken breast;||Nuts or seeds;||Fish cakes + boiled carrots.|
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Features of protein nutrition, dieters
The process of losing weight without proteins is impossible. They accelerate metabolism, help burn fat and strengthen muscle mass.
To absorb proteins, the body spend more energy than to process fats, which provides rapid weight loss.
For the effectiveness of the diet, you need to give preference to protein foods that contain few carbohydrates and even less fat.
In order to avoid disturbance of protein balance and harm to health during a diet, it is enough to follow some rules:
- Break meals into 5 – 6 small portions with breaks of at least 3 hours. With small doses of protein, the body will be able to cope with it painlessly and send it to fight against extra pounds.
- For dinner, take only protein and not in large quantities. Together with the products of its decay, a stagnant liquid will leave the body.
- Maintain the usefulness of foods during cooking. The best ways: boiling, stewing, baking.
- Carbohydrates and fats are consumed sparingly in the morning.
- Vegetables and herbs in the daily diet are essential as sources of vitamins and minerals for digestion.
- Seasonings and dressings to use from natural ingredients: dill, parsley, dried herbs, garlic, onions and others.
- The exclusion of salt promotes the rapid breakdown of fat and the release of unnecessary fluid.
- Drinking water in sufficient quantities ( 3 – 4 pint per day) will ensure good health and attractive appearance, will also accelerate weight loss.
The exit from the protein diet should proceed gradually with a decrease in protein products and a return to a balanced diet of BJU (protein, fat, carbohydrate) in a ratio of 35:20:45.
The functions of proteins ensure the qualitative development of all systems of the human body, therefore, their consumption must be controlled by enriching the daily diet with important elements and monitor their interaction.
Video about the functions of proteins in the body
The main functions of the protein in the human body: