The level of endurance determines how a person will feel at the end of the working day, whether he will be able to carry heavy packages with purchases from store to home and whether there will be a need to use the elevator to go up to the 3rd floor. Endurance training is necessary not only for people leading an active lifestyle, but also for those who prefer a passive rest.
- What does endurance mean
- Ways to Develop Stamina
- Maximum load
- Cyclic exercise system
- Endurance Training Examples
- At home
- In gym
- Strength Exercise
- Speed endurance exercises
- Breathing exercises
- Joe Vader Speed Principle
- Training methods for Seluyanova V.N.
- How to improve performance
- CrossFit complexes
- Stamina training program for beginners
- Mid-End Stamina Training Program
- Training Tips
- Approaches and repetitions
- Beginner Mistakes
- Contraindications and limitations
- Endurance Training Video
What does endurance mean
Endurance – the body’s ability to withstand overwork, and the ability to perform monotonous physical work for a long period of time without loss of performance. Everyone has this quality, but everyone has a different level of development.
There are many forms of manifestation of endurance, which can be conditionally combined into 2 groups:
- general – refers to the performance of work of a non-specific nature;
- special – refers to specific activities related to physical fatigue.
Special stamina is divided into 2 types:
- speed: the ability to maintain a constant speed for a long time. It is necessary for long-distance runners, swimmers, cyclists;
- power: the ability of muscles to produce intense efforts over a long period of time without lowering the strength of contraction of muscle fibers. This is a mandatory quality for weightlifters and people whose work is associated with intense physical exertion.
The level of endurance depends on the content in the muscles of glycogen – a polysaccharide formed from glucose residues. During physical exertion, its breakdown gives the body more energy than the breakdown of protein. Therefore, high-carb diets contribute to the development of endurance, and protein provoke its decrease.
Endurance training has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system (CVS). During exercise, there is an increase in the force of contraction of the heart muscle and the volume of blood being pushed out, which allows to further reduce the pulse rate and respiration at rest.
- maintain pulmonary ventilation at a good level;
- keep the contractility of the heart;
- avoid problems with blood pressure;
- slow down the aging process of the body.
General endurance develops in the presence of regular physical activity of moderate intensity for a long time.
Ways to Develop Stamina
There are several methods for developing overall stamina:
|Uniform||A single exercise with constant intensity for a long time (from 15 minutes to 3 hours).||Jogging, walking, cycling|
|Variable||Performing exercises with periodic changes in the intensity of the load.||Interval Cardio|
|Repeated||The repetition of a set of exercises performed in a specific order with a given speed and intensity, after an arbitrary period of time.||Crossfit|
|Interval||Performing exercises with high intensity and a limited number of repetitions at strictly controlled rest intervals.||Barbell press: 4 sets of 10 reps. Rest break between sets – 1 min|
When compiling training programs, as a rule, they use an integrated approach, using all methods of developing endurance.
High-intensity training using maximum loads is optimal for people with an average or high level of training, but limited in time. The meaning of interval training is to alternate exercises of high and low intensity.
It can consist of 10 cycles, in which the interval of high intensity will be 1 min., And low – 2. Thus, the lesson will take only 30 minutes, but in terms of energy consumption it can easily be equated to the hour of performing cyclic exercises.
Cyclic exercise system
Circular training is an ideal solution for those who get tired of monotonous, monotonous work. The program can include from 6 to 15 exercises aimed at developing both strength and general stamina.
They must be performed at a good pace at short intervals, for example: 1 min. training, 20 s. recreation. For one lesson, it is recommended to repeat from 3 to 6 cycles.
Endurance Training Examples
Endurance training can be divided into 2 types, which are determined by the body systems involved in the training process.
- the development of cardiovascular endurance , in the process of which the efficiency of CVS is increased. This indicator can be developed at home. The simplest but effective exercises are: running or walking at a fast pace, jumping rope, swimming, cycling;
- muscle strength training , which increases the contractility of muscle fibers or muscle groups. Such training is best done in the gym under the supervision of an instructor. Basic exercises: pull-ups, push-ups, deadlift, twisting.
There are several exercises that do not require additional equipment, but with regular performance will provide a good result. The number of repetitions in the approach is not regulated. Each exercise is carried out to failure – a condition in which the muscles are so overworked that they lose their ability to contract.
Squats : 3 sets with an interval of 1 min;
- direct or diagonal twisting : 2 sets with the maximum number of repetitions;
- push-ups : 4 approaches (to facilitate the implementation, you can use a hard chair as a support);
- jumping rope 15 min.
- ejection of legs : to complete the exercise it is necessary to stand on all fours, focusing on outstretched arms and alternately eject bent at the knees of the legs, feeling the gluteal muscles tighten. It is necessary to make 2 approaches with the maximum number of repetitions.
Running on stairs also develops endurance very well, has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the cardiorespiratory system and helps to lose weight. Recommended lead time is 20-30 minutes.
A visit to the fitness center expands the possibilities for the development of both speed and strength endurance.
The following exercises are practi
ced in the gym:
- a lesson on a treadmill, exercise bike, ellipsoid, stepper (interval modes with a change in the intensity of the load can be set);
- rowing on the simulator;
- oblique twisting;
- bench press;
- pushing the sled;
- ropes and stuff;
As a rule, each workout consists of a warm-up, a program of 4-6 exercises, a hitch and stretching. People without experience working on simulators are advised to conduct several workouts with an instructor in order to work out the execution technique.
There are several basic exercises for developing strength endurance:
- Squats: can be performed on both legs, or on one (gun);
- lunges: the use of weights is possible;
- bench press;
- wide grip pull-ups;
- push-ups on the uneven bars;
- twisting the torso on an inclined plane.
All exercises are done at an average or fast pace with a minimum number of repetitions of 20 times. The program is designed for a different level of training and can be adapted for both beginners and advanced athletes.
Speed endurance exercises
Training on speed endurance is carried out by quickly performing cyclic movements.
The best exercises for its development:
- jumping rope;
- dynamic sports games: tennis, soccer, volleyball, basketball;
- training with a punching bag. Strike pattern: 30 s. at a slow pace, 10 at fast, 10 to 100 cycles in the set.
To increase lung volume, the following set of exercises is recommended:
- diaphragmatic breathing . On a deep breath, maximize the stomach, while exhaling – retract. Runtime from 4 to 6 minutes;
- full chest breathing . On a deep breath, maximize the chest, to exhale, return to its original position. The back should be straight, shoulders straightened, belly motionless. Runtime from 5 to 10 minutes;
- 2 quick breaths . At the expense of 1, exhale, at the expense of 2 – inhale. Exercise is performed until a slight dizziness occurs;
- Relaxation . Relax as much as possible, close your eyes, breathe slowly and deeply for several minutes.
If there are any pathologies of the lungs (for example, asthma), before you begin training, you should consult your doctor.
One of the best exercises for the development of endurance is considered to be “Burpee”. This is a combination of alternating push-ups and jumps, the repetition of which is done at a fast pace without a break.
Order of execution:
- Take emphasis lying down.
- Do 1 push up.
- Go to the squat stop position.
- Quickly straighten up and bounce, arms raised above your head.
- Return to the squat stop position.
- Take a lying position.
The number of repetitions is determined by the instructor. With self-training, it is recommended to repeat it at least 20 times per approach.
Joe Vader Speed Principle
Joe Vader is a famous bodybuilding trainer. He developed a unique training technique for professional athletes, the essence of which is based on several principles, one of which is the principle of speed. In standard workouts, repetitions are performed at an average pace, giving you the opportunity to feel the work of each muscle and focus on technology.
This approach is ideal for athletes seeking to create a proportional figure. However, for bodybuilders whose priority is muscle volume, it is not suitable. In this case, it is recommended to use high-speed training aimed at the development of fast muscle fibers, which are distinguished by great strength, but rapid fatigue.
The speed principle involves working with large weights that the body is not used to. The number of repetitions is reduced, but the speed of execution increases. All attention should be focused on speed, not on weight lifting techniques. The method is recommended for athletes who have been training for more than 1 year, in which the technology for performing exercises has been worked out to be automatic.
Training methods for Seluyanova V.N.
Victor Seluyanov has been studying the processes taking place in the body during the training process for more than 20 years.
During his research, he deduced several principles that improved the results of muscle building:
- principle of quality of effort : all exercises must be performed to failure;
- priority principle : first you need to work out those muscle groups that are most important for performing basic movements;
- microcycling principle : it is not advisable to work out all the muscles in one workout. It is necessary to divide them into groups and work out one by one;
- compensation principle: all muscles, ligaments, and body systems (including the nervous system) have their own rehabilitation time. Developing training for a particular muscle group makes sense only after its full recovery.
Training, developed in accordance with these principles, allowed American athletes to receive the highest awards not only in American but also in international competitions.
How to improve performance
Endurance training will give the expected result only if you systematically increase performance. Otherwise, the body adapts to the loads and progress stops.
The load is increased in 3 stages:
first : the development of general endurance due to aerobic exercise, cardio, breathing exercises and exercises to strengthen the musculoskeletal system;
- the second : an increase in the load with alternating exercises of low and high intensity;
- third : training special endurance through the introduction of interval and cyclic training in aerobic and anaerobic modes.
The third stage includes classes on the CrossFit system.
CrossFit is a patented training
system that incorporates elements of various sports. It is aimed at developing not only endurance, but also such qualities as strength, speed and flexibility. Crossfit complexes are alternating loads on various systems and muscle groups.
If one day there is strength training with bench presses, deadlift and lifts, then the next day will be devoted to the development of CCC endurance, and include aerobic training. This approach allows you to adapt the body to all types of overload, increases muscle tone and elasticity, and improves the overall physical condition of a person.
Stamina training program for beginners
The initial complex is designed for people who have never before played sports. It is designed so as not to overload the heart. Each lesson should begin with a warm-up, include exercises for the muscles of the lower back and abdominal muscles, and end with a hitch and stretching.
Complex for 7 days:
|Exercise||Number of sets / reps|
|Jump rope||4/5 minutes|
|Jumping to the platform||3/20|
|Bicycle riding||1 hour at an average pace|
|Pull up||4 / to failure|
|Simulator rowing||4/3 min|
|Swimming||30 minutes. at an average pace|
|Rope climbing||5 ups and downs. If preparation allows, do the exercise without the help of the legs.|
|Pushing the sled||5/ 49’2 foot.|
|Push ups||5 / to failure|
|Run||30 minutes. at an average pace.|
|Sunday – rest. It is advisable to visit the sauna.|
The interval between approaches should be no more than 1 minute. Rest between exercises – maximum 90 s. You can proceed to the training of medium difficulty only after a few months of regular training for the program for beginners.
Mid-End Stamina Training Program
With secondary training, a circular lesson consisting of 2 blocks is recommended.
Scheme of classes for 7 days:
|Block 1||Block 2|
|2 day – swimming|
|4 day – bike|
|6 day – run|
|7 day – rest. It is recommended to visit the sauna.|
The lesson is held at a fast pace without a break. Each block must be repeated 3 times. The number of repetitions and calculation of the load weight is determined by the in
structor. Between the complexes rest until breathing is fully restored.
In order for the training to bring both benefit and pleasure, it is necessary to follow some recommendations of professionals:
- provide quality rest. With intensive training, the body needs to recover, otherwise there will not be enough energy for classes;
- consume at least 0,5 gallon of water per day. Water improves metabolism and helps supply oxygen to muscles;
- don’t feel sorry for yourself. In training, it is necessary to achieve the maximum level of overwork;
- do not stop there. It is necessary to gradually increase the level of load, otherwise there will be no progress;
- to know the measure in everything. Excessive diligence can lead to increased fatigue with further deterioration of results;
- be sure to have breakfast. The first meal should contain complex carbohydrates, fiber and proteins to charge the body with energy for the whole day.
Endurance training is recommended to be strengthened by nutrition control, providing the body with substances that contribute to the development of this quality.
Approaches and repetitions
The number of approaches and repetitions depends on the level of preparation of the person and the program for which the training is carried out. In standard classes on the development of general endurance, 3-4 approaches are practiced with the number of repetitions from 20 to complete failure.
As practice shows, in the pursuit of results, many novice athletes make the following mistakes:
- neglect the performance of one or another exercise. Refusing to run in favor of rowing may not be important when training for general endurance, but both exercises are important for developing a special one;
- frivolous attitude to the development of the technique of execution. It is important to remember that one incorrect movement when working with large weights can cause injury;
- lack of system in training;
- attitude to aerobic training, as to recovery. Beginners do not see much sense in them and prefer what seems to them the most promising for building strength and muscles.
All these points are not so important for people training for themselves, but not for those who want to succeed.
Contraindications and limitations
Endurance training has a general healing effect on the body, but there are certain diseases in which physical activity is absolutely or temporarily contraindicated.
- respiratory diseases and CCC pathology;
- ODE problems;
- fractures and other injuries to the limbs;
- poor or impaired vision;
- obesity (before you start training, you must first lose weight).
It is not recommended to give loads to the body for 2-3 weeks after recovering from colds and viral diseases. If you have a feeling of physical or psychological overwork, it is better to postpone the training.
Endurance training for girls is a good opportunity to improve the quality of life, increase working capacity, do more in time and achieve success in various fields of activity.
Endurance Training Video
Top 5 Stamina Exercises: