Plastic surgery does not stand still. There are new ways to make people more beautiful, younger, more confident in themselves. One of these methods is abdominoplasty. What this is and what is the essence of the procedure can be found in the article.
- Abdominoplasty – what is it, the essence of the procedure
- Types of abdominoplasty of the abdomen
- Complete abdominoplasty (abdominotorsorfia)
- Secondary abdominoplasty (apronectomy)
- Adipose tissue abdominoplasty
- Vertical abdominoplasty
- Lateral abdominoplasty
- Waist line abdominoplasty
- Endoscopic abdominoplasty
- Extended abdominoplasty
- Peripheral Abdominoplasty
- Indications for the operation
- Contraindications and limitations
- Preparation for surgery (analyzes, mode)
- How is the operation
- Rehabilitation after abdominoplasty
- Seam Care
- Compression underwear after abdominoplasty
- Consequences and complications. Edema after abdominoplasty
- Abdominoplasty and subsequent pregnancy
- When to start playing sports
- How much is abdominoplasty – price
- Video clips: what is abdominoplasty
Abdominoplasty – what is it, the essence of the procedure
Abdominoplasty is called volumetric surgery aimed at creating an aesthetic appearance of the front of the abdomen.
The purpose of the operation is to remove folds of skin and fat, eliminate stretch marks, restore the physiological position of the navel and diverging muscles of the abdomen, as well as the formation of a narrow waist and the creation of a thin silhouette.
Types of abdominoplasty of the abdomen
There are several types of abdominoplasty of the abdomen.
Miniabdominoplasty is a limited abdominal lift, which affects only its lower, without changing the position of the navel. This type of abdominoplasty is characterized by a quick rehabilitation and a small incision line, which will be invisible under the underwear.
Miniabdominoplasty is divided into subspecies according to its method:
The umbilical technique consists in making two small incisions around the navel. It is used to eliminate stretch marks and loose skin.
Miniabdominoplasty with a cut above the pubis above the hairline. The technique is applicable to eliminate defects in the abdomen below the navel. The excess tissue is mobilized above the navel, the abdominal wall muscles are sutured and excess tissue is removed. You can additionally carry out the procedure for strengthening the muscle corset.
Miniabdominoplasty with de-epidermisation of the skin. This option is less traumatic than the previous ones, since in this case only the surface layer of the skin is removed, and not the entire flap. It is used to eliminate minor defects.
Complete abdominoplasty (abdominotorsorfia)
Complete abdominoplasty (abdominotorosurphy) is performed with an abundance of subcutaneous fat layer, with hernias of the abdomen, in the presence of diastasis and stretch marks. Incisions are made around the navel and above the pubis. The size of the lower incision depends on the amount of fatty tissue.
Secondary abdominoplasty (apronectomy)
Secondary abdominoplasty (apronectomy) is also called mediabdominoplasty. It is the middle link between mini-abdominoplasty and complete abdominoplasty.
It is prescribed to patients with excess skin below the navel. During the operation, a vertical incision is made from the navel line down and a horizontal incision along the bikini line. During the operation, a small amount of skin is removed in the problem area, the navel moves and the abdominal muscles are sutured to eliminate diastasis.
Adipose tissue abdominoplasty
Abdominoplasty with aspiration of adipose tissue is recommended for large deposits of fat on the abdomen and sides.
During the operation, adipose tissue is aspirated through special holes (liposuction), after which cuts are made in the navel and in the bikini area. A skin-fatty flap is separated, excess skin is removed, the navel is displaced in an aesthetically correct position and diastasis is eliminated.
Vertical abdominoplasty is a complete tummy tuck. The doctor performs a vertical incision in the midline of the abdomen, and the doctor, at his discretion, can also make a horizontal incision in the bikini area.
A vertical incision can reach the sternum line, based on the patient’s body fat. Abdominal muscles are stitched in the correct position (diastasis is eliminated), the navel is also fixed in the correct position, excess fatty tissue and saggy skin are removed.
Lateral or stress-lateral abdominoplasty is prescribed for patients with deformation of the anterior abdominal wall, its lateral and muscle layer defects (diastasis).
For a plastic surgeon who has chosen this type of abdominoplasty, it will be important to consider that the tissues in the upper thighs and the body itself are a single unit from an aesthetic point of view.
Cuts are located on the lateral lines of the abdomen. This technique is used to form the waist. Tension of tissues is formed in the lateral line, the angle between the vertical axis of the body and the direction of tension is 90 degrees.
Waist line abdominoplasty
Abdominoplasty with the allocation of the waistline allows you to get a thin waist, even if it was not there before. To achieve this goal, you may need to remove one or a pair of lower ribs.
Endoscopic abdominoplasty is applicable for defects such as divergence of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. The operation is performed by piercing the skin in the areas around the navel and bikini.
Using endoscopic techniques and a specialized camera, the abdominal muscles are secured and stitched. During the operation, hernias are eliminated. It is usually accompanied by liposuction. Endoscopic abdominoplasty is indicated only in 10% of patients in the age group under 40 years old, with elastic skin of the abdomen and moderate fatty deposits and diastasis.
The combination of a complete abdominal tightening and liposuction of the sides is called expanded abdominoplasty, because it is such an surgical intervention in which the incision line, when performed, from the line above the pubis continues along the side line towards the hip bones. The cut line reaches the buttocks. As a result, the skin on the hips, waist and ilium is tightened.
The combination of advanced abdominoplasty with a buttock lift. This operation is indicated for those who have a huge “apron” of skin as a result of strong weight loss. A circular incision is made from the bikini line to the buttocks, excess skin and excess fatty tissue are removed.
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Indications for the operation
- fat and skin apron, pronounced folds on the abdomen;
- prolapse (ptosis) of the anterior abdominal wall;
- excess adipose tissue under the skin of the anterior abdominal wall, if it is not possible to eliminate these defects by conventional methods (diet, sports, cosmetic procedures), surgery, such as liposuction, or a combination of these methods;
- the presence of stretch marks (striae);
- stretching and divergence of the abdominal muscles;
- unaesthetic and rough postoperative sutures;
- hernia of the abdominal wall;
- loss of skin elasticity (in the case when liposuction is not applicable).
Contraindications and limitations
The operation of
abdominoplasty is strictly contraindicated if the patient has at least one of the following points:
- severe thyroid dysfunction;
- allergy to drugs;
- scars left after operations located above the level of the navel;
- with disruption of work and diseases of the blood;
- the presence of mental disorders in the patient;
- renal failure, rheumatism;
- 2,3,4-degree obesity;
- severe diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- varicose veins in the lower extremities;
- connective tissue diseases;
- AIDS, HIV, hepatitis;
- pregnancy planning the first year after surgery and pregnancy at the time of surgery.
In addition to the above general prohibitions on the operation, there are local contraindications:
- the presence of psoriasis,
- purulent pathologies,
- fungal infections of the skin,
- taking drugs that affect blood coagulation.
Time restrictions for the operation:
- Influenza, acute respiratory viral infections and other infectious diseases,
- chronic diseases during exacerbation,
- menstruation in women (3-5 days before and after abdominal tightening)
Preparation for surgery (analyzes, mode)
To obtain permission for plastic surgery, you must pass the following tests:
- general blood analysis,
- general urine analysis,
- blood chemistry,
- blood coagulation test, coagulogram,
- analysis for HIV, AIDS, hepatitis,
- determination of blood group and Rh factor.
Pass instrumental diagnostics:
After passing all the required tests and examinations, you need to undergo a medical examination at the following specialists:
Consultation of an anesthesiologist. The next stage of preparation for surgery is consultation with an anesthetist. An anesthesiologist has a great responsibility for the life of the patient, and therefore, having studied all the results of tests and examinations, he can prescribe additional ones.
These most often include daily ECG, daily pressure monitor, specialist advice.
Surgeon consultation. After analyzing the resume compiled by the anesthetist and examining the examination data, the surgeon will evaluate the following patient parameters:
- skin elasticity
- state of the muscular system
- how much is the subcutaneous fat layer
- Is there a need to move the navel
- determination of the degree of ptosis,
- determination of the presence of hernias and defects.
At least 2-3 weeks before the start of the operation, the patient needs to adhere to a special regime in nutrition and lifestyle:
- To reduce the volume of the intestines and stomach, it is worth eating in small portions 4-6 times a day.
- Stick to separate nutrition.
- Do not drink food.
- Drink a glass of water shortly before eating.
- Eat in small portions.
- Drink more than 0,5 gallon of pure water per day.
- After 18:00 eat fat-free dairy products (cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt).
- Recommended intake of sorbents (Lactofiltrum) and drugs that normalize the microflora (Linex, Bifiform, Acipol).
- Increase the level of activity, add exercise, aerobic or cardio loads to the daily schedule.
- Visit the bathhouse or sauna once a week.
- Visit a massage room and do body wraps to speed up metabolism.
- The diet before the procedure should be as limited as possible in the intake of carbohydrates. Sweet, flour, salted, smoked, fried, fatty, pasta, potatoes, sausages, sweet fruits (bananas, grapes), ketchup, mayonnaise and other products of unhealthy foods are excluded from the diet.
- Start taking drugs that strengthen the walls of blood vessels (Detralex, Ascorutin).
Before the operation in a few days:
- Quitting smoking is recommended, as there is a deterioration in blood circulation, which contributes to poor healing of sutures.
- It is necessary to carefully carry out the prevention of colds and infectious diseases, to prevent ailments.
- One week before surgery, alcohol should be excluded.
- Taking any medication should be discussed with your doctor. Drugs based on aspirin, ibuprofen thin the blood and should be excluded a week before surgery,
- On the day before surgery, until midnight, only light food and liquid should be included in the diet. It is necessary to refuse food intake 6 hours before the operation itself, and liquid in two hours. Before surgery, in the morning it is better to drink 6,76 fluid ounce of tea, coffee or water,
- On the day of surgery, you can not use cosmetics and decorative nail polish.
- Jewelry and piercing should be removed and left at home.
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How is the operation
The duration of the operation is from two to 5 hours, depending on the type selected.
Abdominoplasty is performed using general anesthesia (general anesthesia) , in some cases local anesthesia combined with sedation can be used, in which the patient is conscious and may experience discomfort.
Stages of the operation:
- Marks on the skin of the patient. It will help orient the surgeon in the amount of tissue to be removed and be sure of the correctness of the actions so that the body is symmetrical and the seam looks aesthetically pleasing and not overtightened. The marking is applied to the skin of the patient in a standing position.
- The cut is performed. The incision passes above the pubic hairline and its length is usually 2 – 2’4 inch, according to the decision of a plastic surgeon. The classic incision can be supplemented or replaced with a vertical or cuts around the navel. The choice is determined by the amount of subcutaneous fat layer of the patient.
- The separation of fat and skin tissue from the abdominal wall is performed.
- Muscles and connective tissues are fixed in the correct position, if necessary.
- There is a reduction and suturing of hernias, fixation using a medical mesh.
- Liposuction is performed, if necessary.
- The formation of a new umbilical ring.
- Excess skin and fat are removed.
- The incision is closed using specialized glue or by suturing.
- After the operation is completed, the suture is treated with an antiseptic and closed with a sterile dressing, after which special compression underwear is put on.
Rehabilitation after abdominoplasty
Such volumetric surgery as abdominoplasty provides for a long recovery period, which usually lasts 6 months. The first 4-6 weeks of this period are the most difficult for the patient.
During the first 3 days after the plastic surgery, the patient should be in the hospital under the supervision of medical personnel , and then with good health, no complaints and good seam condition, he can be discharged home. In some cases, patients are left under observation for a longer period.
On average, the picture of the recovery period in the first days after surgery looks like this:
On the first day you can only lie. Lying is allowed with the raised head of the bed. From food you can only water (regular or mineral without gas), after restoration of bowel function give light food,
On the second day, the patient tries to get out of bed. This task is only possible for the first time with the help of medical staff, so as not to harm health. The patient is allowed to drink fluids without restriction and eat light food. Perhaps a slight increase in temperature.
After removing the sutures, a special course of rehabilitation procedures is recommended, which includes hardware massage and physiotherapy treatment. Special gymnastics is also recommended, which will not allow the muscles to atrophy.
To maintain tissue tone, it is mandatory to wear compression garments that keep the seams from diverging. Within 3 months it is forbidden to visit baths, saunas, take hot baths, play sports, physical work should also be reduced as much as possible.
Sex is prohibited until the doctor allows you to remove postoperative underwear. This period can last from one to 3 months and the end of it does not mean that you should immediately catch up. Intimacy in the first time after surgery should be regarded as physical activity.
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In order not to negate the efforts of a plastic surgeon and not to waste the money spent on the operation for nothing, it is necessary to observe the dietary regimen.
After surgery, it is important for the body to find energy to restore and to maintain immunity. Proper nutrition during this period will help to avoid complications after abdominoplasty surgery. Here’s what it is right diet after abdominoplasty:
- In the first week, it is important to limit the consumption of products that contribute to gas formation (grapes, legumes, soda, kvass, cabbage).
- It is necessary to monitor the amount of fluid consumed and not exceed the limit set by the doctor.
- Nutritionists are advised to adhere to a fractional diet upon returning home. This diet will reduce the volume of the stomach and help to gradually lose weight without harm to the body. The habit of eating small portions of 200-250 g 5-6 times a day and counting on 300 kcal per serving, will help to save the result of the operation for a longer period.
Products that will help restore the body after abdominoplasty:
- meat, fish, steamed or boiled, dried fruits, eggs contribute to the acceleration of scar healing;
- raisins, buckwheat, beef, and liver will saturate the body with iron and increase the level of hemoglobin;
- citrus fruits, apples, persimmons, tomatoes, bell peppers are rich in vitamin C and help accelerate the healing of scars.
After the operation, you should avoid fast food restaurants, pickles, fatty, smoked, fried.
Cutaneous sutures after abdominoplasty surgery are removed on the fourteenth day. If an intradermal suture was applied, then its removal is not required, since when it is applied, materials are used that absorb themselves or special glue.
The seam must be processed with antiseptic agents (alcohol, green), at least twice a day. It is also not allowed to get the seam wet in the first 5 days. On the 6-7th day it is allowed to take a full shower, with caution avoiding water and soap from entering the area of the cut.
By the time the suture is removed, the disappearance of hematomas is observed, edema can be present for up to 6 months, only after they have completely subsided can the result of the operation be fully evaluated.
Compression underwear after abdominoplasty
Compression underwear after abdominoplasty surgery should be made of specialized breathable materials and purchased at a pharmacy or special store. It should provide support and create a feeling of comfort, evenly distributing pressure throughout the surgical site.
After a tummy tuck, postoperative underwear is put on immediately, it reduces swelling and prevents bloating, supporting tissue . In addition, wearing compression underwear helps control your appetite by keeping it tight against your stomach.
Wearing such underwear will help to reduce not only tissue swelling, but also improves the scarring process, reduces the risk of complications and improves blood circulation. Supporting the tissues in the right position will help maintain the result of the operation during the healing process.
Surgeons recommended wearing postoperative linen around the clock for 2 or 3 weeks, in some cases 4-6, depending on the amount of surgery. In the case where there was no elimination of diastasis (divergence of the rectus abdominis muscles) it is enough to wear this underwear for 3 weeks.
In order for clothing to be beneficial, it must be properly selected. Compression garments should be sized according to their size and be soft enough to avoid injuries and the formation of contour irregularities in the skin.
It is important that the laundry has a system of adjustable fasteners in order to control the level of compression during the healing process.
For high-quality compression underwear, spandex and nylon are used. Tissues must be strong and antimicrobial, allowing the skin to breathe. Since underwear may be needed up to 6 weeks of continuous wear, it is worth preparing several sets.
Compression not only of the abdomen and hips, but also of the legs may be necessary, so it is worth preparing and stocking up with compression stockings. The size and shape of the compression garment will help the surgeon to choose based on the volume of surgery.
Consequences and complications. Edema after abdominoplasty
- In the first hours after the operation, swelling appears. They can become stronger in the first week and not subsid
e completely within a few months.
- Superficial hematomas are characteristic after abdominoplasty. They quickly leave and leave no traces.
- Cuts after surgery leave scars that can be hidden with any linen or swimsuit. The use of ointments and special cosmetic procedures will help make them less noticeable or even invisible, but the methods of modern plastic surgeons allow the scar to become an inconspicuous light bar after 6 months.
- Loss of sensitivity in the area of the operation is possible for up to 6 months, after which it will be restored in full. At this time, the patient will feel numbness, touching the seam area.
Following surgery, the following complications may occur:
- Blood or tissue fluid may accumulate in the suture cavity. To avoid this complication, a drainage procedure is performed, during which thin tubes are introduced under the skin into the incision area.
- The appearance of inflammation in the wound area formed during surgery is most often observed in patients with a high degree of obesity. For prevention, antibacterial drugs are prescribed after surgery, which are aimed at a wide range of actions.
- Seam discrepancy is possible with physical exertion and suppuration of the skin, after which unwanted scars may appear.
- Necrosis of the edges of the sutures can occur if there are already scars from previously transferred surgical interventions in the area of the operation or if the edges of the wound were pulled. To eliminate this defect, surgical intervention will be required.
- The accumulation of adipose tissue above the suture level is possible with a strong displacement of the tissues down and with an impressive thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer. To eliminate the seal in the form of a roller, another surgical intervention will be required.
- Chronic pain syndrome is quite rare. This complication is not treated, but only temporarily drowned out by taking painkillers.
- Asymmetry occurs with improper fixation of the abdominal muscles and their connective tissues. It is eliminated in 3 ways: philling with its own fat, preparations with hyaluronic acid or surgical intervention.
- Hyperpigmentation of the skin can occur at the site of subcutaneous hematomas.
Abdominoplasty and subsequent pregnancy
Pregnancy after abdominal surgery is not advisable for one year. As after surgery, abdominoplasty, because it can provoke such consequences as the appearance of striae, sagging skin and diastasis.
When to start playing sports
Six weeks after the operation, you can begin to walk, run, light exercise. The movements should be smooth and light.
Power loads and heavy physical exercises at this stage are contraindicated.
You can use the gym to feel good, but exercises should only be done in compression garments. A complete recommendation regarding physical activity is given by the doctor individually, after surgery.
How much is abdominoplasty – price
The cost of abdominoplasty depends on its type. The larger the operation, the more expensive it will be. The price of abdominoplasty varies on average from $ 1088 to $ 2720. The cost of the operation usually does not include the delivery of tests and medical advice.
The cost of an abdominoplasty operation is the sum of the cost of the surgical intervention itself, anesthesia, hospital stay (price per ward), compression underwear, rehabilitation procedures, dressings and follow-up.
In conclusion, we can say about the operation of abdominoplasty, that it is such an surgical intervention, which is aimed at making people more beautiful, as in most cases it happens. Therefore, it is extremely important to follow all the doctor’s recommendations aimed at maintaining a new appearance.
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