What to eat before playing sports worries both novice athletes and professionals. The balance between the unhappy rumbling in the stomach and the pulling sensation in a full stomach is important. The following are the principles of nutrition before training, depending on its purpose, body type and body characteristics.
- The nuances of a sports diet
- When to eat before and after training
- For burning fat and losing weight
- For muscle gain
- Before strength training
- Before training when drying
- The ratio of BJU in the diet of athletes
- Calculation of calorie intake
- Harris-Benedict formula
- Allowed Products
- Prohibited Products
- Sports nutrition: supplements and shakes, rules for their use
- Features sports nutrition for different physiques
- For ectomorph
- For endomorph
- For mesomorph
- The use of cottage cheese and cheese for an athlete
- Is coffee and tea good for an athlete
- Is it possible to eat sweets
- 10 best products before training
- Pre and Post Workout Nutrition Video
The nuances of a sports diet
The main substances responsible for the charge of energy and a surge of energy are carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
The basic principles of sports nutrition:
- Carbohydrates support blood sugar levels. Complex carbohydrates with a lower GI (glycemic index) are recommended. It is necessary to abandon lush buns, pies and pastries, since refined sugars are used in their preparation. You can replace them with berry and fruit smoothies, oatmeal, whole grain bread and nuts.
- Complex carbohydrates can be obtained from pasta from durum wheat, eating them in the morning so that they break down in the evening.
- Tea, juices and tea cannot replace water, so you need to drink at least 0,5 gallon of water per day. Carbonated drinks are banned due to the high content of hidden sugars.
- Proteins prevent muscle breakdown and activate fiber repair, while decreasing the percentage of adipose tissue. These substances provide a feeling of long saturation.
- Proteins supply the body with amino acids that are involved in building muscle.
- To obtain proteins, you can eat lean skinless poultry, seafood, dairy and sour milk products with a reduced fat content.
- Protein breakfast is made from low-fat cottage cheese with the addition of a carbohydrate-rich banana; omelet from 2 eggs with boiled chicken or vegetables; a slice of whole grain bread with fish and a salad of fresh vegetables.
- Fats are made up of fatty acids necessary to stabilize metabolism. For the body to receive fats, vegetable oil is added to salads in an amount of not more than 2 tablespoon per day.
- Stability in the quantity and time of eating is important. A day should be eaten 4-5 times.
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When to eat before and after training
According to the recommendations of nutritionists, the optimal time for eating before training is 1.5-2 hours. A portion of the food should consist of proteins with easy digestion and slow carbohydrates, but contain a reduced amount of fat. If, due to lack of time, it is not possible to plan a full meal before the training, it is impossible to refuse a snack.
A serving of cottage cheese with honey or a glass of fresh kefir with whole grain bun will help one hour before the start of classes. If dizziness and weakness were noted during sports training, the next time you need to eat a small amount of fast carbohydrates before starting work in the gym: ripe banana, orange, apple.
For burning fat and losing weight
What to eat before a workout, if its goal is to burn fat, mainly girls are interested. It is recommended to pay attention to the consumption of protein foods, which provides muscle building and slow carbohydrates, which provide long saturation and a surge of vitality.
1.5 hours before the fat burning training you can eat:
- steam chicken breast with a slice of rye loaf and boiled rice – only 150 g;
- veal steak with a pair of boiled potatoes;
- omelet from 3 egg whites with steamed oatmeal;
- steamed fish steak with 200 g of boiled asparagus;
- portion of 200 g of cottage cheese with 1 large tablespoons of natural honey;
- fruit salad of apple, citrus and berries.
You should refuse food for 1 hour, so that the body by inertia continues to burn its own fat reserves.
For muscle gain
Eating indiscriminately before the training should not be. Food should be energy efficient and slow to digest. To gain muscle mass, protein is essential, the amino acid composition of which contributes to the quality and safe muscle building. At the same time, carbohydrates are needed that provide the athlete with energy.
List of muscle building products:
- beef tenderloin, poultry, lean pork;
- beans, dried fruits and any kind of nuts;
- eggs in the form of omelets or hard boiled;
- whole grain breads and cereals;
- any kind of fish and fresh seafood.
After sports, after 15 minutes you can eat a smoothie or an apple, drink kefir. It is better to eat dinner 1 hour after class.
Before strength training
Food is taken no later than 2 hours before classes, as intense physical activity slows down digestion. A full stomach when performing approaches causes nausea and decreased activity.
Carbohydrates are necessary for energy, and proteins with the help of amino acids provide working muscles with anabolic “support”. Fats are best eliminated, as they slow down the absorption of nutrients and digest longer.
Products that are better to use before strength training:
- poultry with bran bread, rice or whole grain pasta;
- lean fish fillet or meat with baked potatoes;
- oatmeal porridge with omelet;
- cottage cheese with corn bread.
The volume of food should not be large so that subsequently there is no feeling of heaviness in the stomach.
Before training when drying
In order for intensive training on drying to be as productive as possible, you need to eat correctly before classes.
- the first 2-3 weeks, food gradually moves from carbohydrate to protein;
- the first 5-6 weeks, the products should be low-carb with 60% protein, 20% fat and 30% carbohydrates;
- at the 7th week,% of carbohydrates decreases to 5, fats – to 20, and proteins increase to 80;
- then there is a “drain” of water in combination with a carbohydrate-free diet.
The ratio of BJU in the diet of athletes
The amount of calories consumed per day is divided between the 3 main nutrients:
- proteins – 30-40%;
- fats – 10-20%;
- carbohydrates – about 40-50%.
At the same time, the numbers fluctuate depending on the purpose for which the training will be conducted.
Criteria for choosing the righ
t food scheme:
- When recruiting “dry” muscles at a normal pace, you can continue to continue to eat in the same rhythm.
- If the mass does not grow, and there is no progress in the weight of the shells, then the amount of slow carbohydrates and proteins in the diet increases. Particular attention is paid to breakfast and 2 meals after evening sports.
- If the fat layer grows, and the muscles lag behind (this is noticeable by an increase in the girth of the waist, chubby cheeks and invisible cubes of the press), then you should reduce the consumption of fat and carbohydrates, replacing them with proteins.
- If you constantly feel tired, the training slows down, and hair with nails becomes brittle, you need to increase the percentage of carbohydrate foods and diversify the menu with polyunsaturated fats.
- The best way to determine the right path for the training process is to have a high appetite. With intensive exercise, the body produces anabolic hormones that provoke appetite. If there is no desire to eat, this means that the training is not going well.
Calculation of calorie intake
Once in the body, nutrients act as “fuel”: they give vitality, activity, and the ability to perform complex exercises. Their volume is determined by calories. The optimal number of calories provides a harmonious physique, well-being and proportional development of muscles.
Excess energy is deposited in the “storage” of the fat layers. Deficiency provokes anemia, loss of muscle mass and apathy.
- BMR (the minimum amount of energy that the body needs for normal functioning) for men = 88362 + (13397 times the mass in pounds) + (4799 times the height in inch) – (5677 times the age in g).
- BMR for the weaker sex = 447593 + (9247 times weight in pounds) + (4330 times age in years).
What to eat before a workout, depending on its purpose, is described below.
If the purpose of exercising weight loss:
- oatmeal (steamed), fruits, steamed buckwheat, vegetable salads without oil;
- steamed oatmeal with apple slices;
- boiled eggs;
- lean fish;
- skim cheese.
For a set of muscle mass:
- turkey with pasta or rice;
- lean fish with boiled potatoes;
- from fruits: strawberries, apple, pear;
- a glass of whole milk.
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In order for the training to take place efficiently and with benefit, you need to abandon the use of certain products.
It is better to exclude from the diet:
- alcohol in any manifestation;
- useless fast foods;
- dishes from combinations of dough and meat: manti, dumplings, pies;
- sweets, pastries, sweets and cookies;
- smoked meats: sausages, sausages and sausages;
- fatty meat with undercuts, wings or thighs with skin;
- instant noodles, mashed potatoes and soups;
- salted chips and popcorn;
- mayonnaise, canned food and sauces based on mayonnaise.
- cabbage, causing flatulence or colic;
Overeating, like an empty stomach, will provide abdominal pain.
Sports nutrition: supplements and shakes, rules for their use
Sports nutrition provides quick saturation of the body with the necessary nutrients.
It is important not to replace concepts, and not to use sports nutrition as a substitute for a full meal, but only to supplement the diet.
Rules for the use of sports nutrition:
- Gainer and protein . If there is no time to eat, 2 hours before the start of the workout, you can take 30 g of whey protein or the same gainer.
- Amino acids . To build muscle, 15 g of the BCAA amino acid is taken immediately before the start of the training. Scientists recommend taking amino acids only with a low-calorie diet.
Fat burning complexes . If you intend to lose weight, fat burners are used 30 minutes before classes. MuscleTech – HYDROXYCUT Hardcore X (packed in 210 caps.) And Universal Nutrition – Animal Cuts (sold at 42 packs). Complexes provide acceleration of metabolism, warming up muscles and burning body fat.
- L-carnitine is the most popular fat burning supplement. It helps in transporting fat cells to places of their utilization – mitochondria of muscle fibers.
Features sports nutrition for different physiques
What to eat before training depends not only on the purpose of the classes, but also on the type of body structure.
Ectomorphs are people with an accelerated metabolism, due to which body weight is reduced and subcutaneous adipose tissue is minimal. Such athletes are difficult to build muscle. However, a thin physique does not give the athlete the right to consume everything indiscriminately.
The principles of nutrition:
- It is necessary to limit the use of “fast” carbohydrates, alcoholic beverages in any form, trans fats and carbonated sugary drinks.
- A balanced diet for ectomorph should consist of 50% complex carbohydrates, 25% fat and 30% protein.
- Be sure to consume protein shakes that can be replaced with gainers – a complex of carbohydrates and proteins. They should be drunk 3 times a day before and after training.
- This type is recommended stimulants of the production of the organic hormone testosterone. These are Tribulus, Ecdysterone, Ecdysten. Enzymes can be taken for better absorption of food.
- Ectomorphs eat 5 times a day, so that the metabolism does not disperse even faster.
- Calorie content can be increased up to 4000 kcal during the period of muscle gain. Skipping full meals and replacing them with snacks is not allowed.
- Ectomorphs can afford high-starch carbohydrates in their diet: rice, potatoes, and beans.
Endomorphs are people prone to fullness. They immediately gain fat, but it is difficult to build weight. Due to the characteristics of the body, even regular high-intensity trainings will not help the body regain relief. Only a diet will help to achieve an endomorph of a beautiful body with a visible relief.
The principles of nutrition:
- Endomorphs need to strictly monitor the diet.
- Important calorie deficit. You need to reduce calorie intake by 400-500 less.
- Calorie reduction must be introduced gradually: every week at 10%. It is necessary to exclude “hungry” or mono-diets, since it can destroy not only fatty tissues, but also muscle fibers.
- The basis of the diet is proteins in volumes of at least 50%. You should pay attention to lean meat without skin, fish and other types of protein and amino acids.
- The optimal amount of carbohydrates is 40%. Attention must be paid to the “slow” types.
- Fats cannot be completely excluded, as they are suppliers of omega-6 and omega-3 acids in a ratio of 10% of the total diet.
- Fast food, chocolate, pies and pastries, carbonated drinks and starchy carbohydrates are contraindicated, since such products cause a feeling of hunger and quickly require additional calories.
- Food is necessary 5-6 times a day in small portions. Normal calories: 300 kcal for men and 200 kcal for women.
- The basis of the menu is fibrous carbohydrates: green vegetables, lean fish, fillets, egg whites, cheeses, rabbit meat and turkey meat.
- From sports nutrition, you need to pay attention to fat burners, for example, L-carnitine, which warms up muscles and accelerates metabolism. Also effective are Lipo-6x, Tight Hardcore and Thermofuse, which can be drunk for no more than a month.
Mesomorphs are people with an optimal metabolic rate. With a sedentary sedentary lifestyle, such people quickly gain weight, and when training in the gym immediately come into shape.
The figure of the mesomorph becomes embossed and toned in such conditions:
- The basis of the menu is complex carbohydrates, which you need to consume in the amount of 60% of the total volume.
- Simple carbohydrates such as flour products, sugar, cakes, pastries are excluded.
- You should pay attention to the glycemic index. Preference is given to products whose GI is from 60 units or lower.
- It is better to eat oatmeal, buckwheat, rice, pearl barley and millet.
- To enrich fiber, vegetables in any prepared form are introduced into the diet.
- Proteins of animal and plant type – 30%. Proteins are found in fish, dairy products, meat, milk, as well as cottage cheese.
- Important is the complete rejection of trans fats, which are contained in fat, pork, snacks and fast food.
- In order to lose weight, the number of calories consumed per day should be limited.
- For a beautiful figure, the calorie content of food should not be exceeded. Eat 3 times a day with 2 light snacks.
- Protein shakes are required in proportions of 1.5 g of protein for every 2 pounds of body weight.
- Restores muscle BCAA amino acid.
The use of cottage cheese and cheese for an athlete
What to eat before training to enrich the body with protein is described further in the article.
The effect of cheese and cottage cheese for the body:
- Cottage cheese is used before and after the training. The proteins in it are absorbed in 3 hours, and the energy remains for 5 hours.
- Curd saturates the body with vitamins PP, C, B, as well as iron, zinc, potassium and phosphorus.
- To build muscle according to the recommendations of nutritionists, it is necessary to eat cheese with a fat content of 9% for a snack.
- For weight loss, softer varieties of cheese with high fat content are used only in the morning. Quail eggs and lettuce are served with cheese.
Is coffee and tea good for an athlete
Caffeine is present in coffee, which can inhibit the nervous system and stimulate the production of adrenaline for energy and sports aggression. Caffeine has a short time effect on the human body. Green tea enriches the body with vitamins A and C, required for muscle growth.
The antioxidants in the composition contribute to the burning of fats. These drinks will not bring health to the athlete, especially from fasting, diluting saliva and reducing the rate of digestion. It is better to drink black tea with the addition of milk, alternating with freshly brewed green tea. Coffee is acceptable no later than 1 hour before the sport.
Is it possible to eat sweets
What to eat for an athlete to lose weight and gain muscle tissue is already known, but is it possible to consume sweets before training, and which types to choose, is described below.
- natural honey;
- dried and fresh fruits;
- marshmallows and pastille;
- a slice of dark chocolate;
- candied fruit;
- cane sugar.
So that the use of sweets does not negatively affect the body, it is important to follow the regime, there are sweets in small portions in the morning.
10 best products before training
So that the menu is not tired of monotony and freshness, it is necessary to change the principle of product layout and introduce products that have a positive effect on the body into the diet.
|Peanut Pasta||Only 1 small spoonful of paste can provide the body with a daily norm of antioxidants. It also contains E-vitamins and a large amount of magnesia. It is better to consume pasta with rye bread.|
|Brown rice||Krupa quickly saturates, has a nutty flavor. Rice is characterized by the presence of selenium and manganese, so regular consumption lowers cholesterol and prevents the risk of cardiovascular disease.|
|Avocado||Unsaturated fatty acids and B vitamins remove cholesterol deposits and relieve hunger. Sliced avocados can be put in a salad, as it has a neutral taste.|
|Grapefruit||The fruit is full of vitamins E and A, as well as zinc, copper, magnesium, thiamine and folate. Grapefruit accelerates metabolism like any other fat burner. It is better to dilute the juice, since the concentrate can negatively affect the digestive tract.|
|Greenery||Dill with parsley are sources of carbohydrates. Calorie content is low, and the iron content is extremely high. Greens are used as an additive in salads and other dishes.|
|Banana||Soft, satisfying and tasty fruits fill the “window” between lunch time and training. Carbohydrates give an athlete energy, increase muscle strength and lower blood pressure. You can not eat more than 1 fruit.|
|Greek type yogurt||If you remove the whey from high-quality yogurt, it will become Greek. Sour-milk mass is enriched with proteins, and the amount of carbohydrates consumed decreases. Yogurt is good for building muscle.|
|Turkey||Appetizing meat is useful in zinc, selenium, iron, vitamin B and B12 complexes. Better to cook the turkey for a couple or in the oven.|
|Cottage cheese||The mass is rich in phosphorus and calcium, which is necessary for the strength of bones. Cottage cheese is the best choice of food before hard exercise. It is well absorbed and accelerates metabolic processes.|
|Eggs||A boiled egg is rich in vitamins A, E, B12, selenium, biotin, as well as iron and iodine. Eggs are best eaten boiled or as an omelet. It is recommended to pay attention to proteins, not yolks.|
What to eat before an intense workout depends on many factors: the purpose of going to the gym, the features of the anatomical structure of the body and the initial physical preparation.
Pre and Post Workout Nutrition Video
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