Clinically, the term “neoplasm” implies a local overgrowth of any body tissue. On the skin, they are represented by primary and secondary tumors, nevi and hemoderma.
In dermatological practice, tumors are divided into benign and malignant. A detailed photo and a detailed description of each of them will be given later.
Why do they arise
The study of skin neoplasms is still ongoing. The exact reasons for their occurrence have not been established, but scientists put forward several theories on this subject.
Provoking factors can be:
- burdened heredity (the presence of neoplasms in relatives);
- individual characteristics of a person (fair skin and hair, old age);
- exposure to ultraviolet, radiation and x-rays;
- viral infection;
- prolonged trauma to the skin;
- chronic exposure to the skin of chemical carcinogens (nitrosoamines, benzopyrene, aromatic amines, etc.);
- insect bites;
- metastatic processes in the presence of an oncological process in the body;
- violation of trophism of the skin, hence chronic skin ulcers;
- weakened immune system (due to immunosuppressive therapy, HIV infection, etc.).
Types of neoplasms on the skin
Neoplasms on the skin by their origin can be divided into primary (those that are formed from the skin tissue itself) and secondary (those that metestasize to the dermis and epidermis from foci of a different location). The latter also include hemoderma. They arise due to pathological proliferation of malignant cells of the hematopoietic system.
There is a division of the neoplasms into benign, precancerous (pre-cancerous) and malignant (cancer proper). This classification allows you to determine the treatment method and life prognosis for the patient.
Nevuses should be distinguished from skin tumors. These are benign neoplasms that relate to skin malformations.
Malignant neoplasms in the American Federation in the structure of cancer incidence today make up 9.8% and 13.7% in men and women, respectively. Persons living in areas with high photoinsolation and having fair skin are especially susceptible to the disease. The description of new cases of skin cancer over the past 10 years has grown by a third.
Malignant skin tumors include:
- Kaposi’s sarcoma;
- squamous cell carcinoma;
- melanoma, etc.
One of the most common epithelial skin tumors. It is formed from atypical cells of the basal layer of the epidermis, from where it got its name. The tumor is characterized by prolonged progression, peripheral growth, during which the destruction of the surrounding tissues occurs. Basal cell carcinoma is not prone to metastasis.
This pathology develops mainly in the elderly and the elderly, localized mainly on the face, neck and head (its scalp). Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is referred to as a precancer, because under the influence of certain factors, it degenerates into metatypical cancer.
The first manifestation of the forming tumor is a dense, hemispherical nodule that does not rise above the skin integument. Its color usually coincides with the color of the skin or differs slightly (light pink shade).
At the initial stage, the patient does not complain. For several years, the papule grows, reaching 0’4 – 0’8 inch in diameter. Its center is gradually destroyed, bloodied and crusty.
Under the latter, erosion or an ulcer with a narrow roller at the edges is found, which over time is scarred and grows on the periphery.
Basalioma reaches a size of 10 or more inch. Once a pink papule turns either into a flat plaque with peeling, or a knot noticeably rising above the surface of the skin, or a deep ulcer that destroys the underlying tissue (down to the bone).
This is a tumor on the skin of fat cells of mesenchymal origin. In the photos below, you can see what sizes these tumors reach. The description in clinical manuals speaks of liposarcoma as a formation prone to appear on the buttocks, hips and retroperitoneal tissue. It is more common in men older than 40 years.
A swelling initially appears, then a knot. There are no subjective sensations yet. On palpation, the nodule is dense, elastic, mobile.
Subsequently, the tumor grows, turns red, inflammatory processes begin. Large liposarcoma can squeeze nerves and blood vessels and even germinate in them, causing tissue trophism disorders and pain.
This is a systemic multifocal disease of vascular origin with a primary lesion of the skin, lymphatic system and internal organs. It refers to tumors of an endothelial nature and develops primarily in individuals with severe immunosuppression.
According to morphology, the skin foci of sarcoma are quite diverse. They come in the form of spots, nodules, infiltrative plaques, etc.
There are several types of sarcoma:
- Classic (European).
- Endemic (African).
- Epidemic (with HIV).
- Immunosuppressive (immunodeficiency caused by drugs and medical manipulations).
The first type is observed in the elderly and the elderly, has a favorable course. Elements grow for a long time, for decades in the proximal direction and do not deliver unpleasant sensations to the patient. Formations are most often localized on the lower extremities, are bluish-red spots up to 2 inch in diameter with smooth edges, resemble hematomas.
In the process of growth, they are converted into nodules, merge. Large nodes darken and eventually ulcerate. At the edges of the elements there are swelling caused by lymph stasis in the lymphatic channel.
The African type is severe, affects the young. Often there is a fulminant course of the disease. Kaposi’s African sarcoma is manifested in several variants of formations – from nodes to lymphadenopathy.
The most malignant type of elements of this type of sarcoma is considered “flowery” (growth in the form of vegetation – in appearance resembles cauliflower). It is characterized by deep lesions of the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and underlying tissues down to the bone.
With HIV infection, the tumor can be l
ocalized gallon anywhere in the body, even affecting internal organs. The most typical site is the oral cavity, stomach and duodenum. The course is heavy. The immunosuppressive type is similar in manifestation to HIV-associated.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Malignant tumor from the epithelium. It is formed from atypical keratinocytes, which randomly proliferate. The process begins in the epidermis, gradually moving into deeper layers. A tumor is characterized by a tendency to metastatic process.
Squamous cell carcinoma occurs 10 times less often than basal cell carcinoma. They often suffer from white-skinned men whose place of residence is a sunny warm climate.
The localization of spinocellular epithelioma is different. The most favorite place for the formation of squamous cell cancer is the border of the transition of the mucous membrane into the skin. These areas include the lips and genitals.
At the initial stage of cancer development, an infiltrate occurs with an elevated hyperkeratotic (rough) surface. The color of the formation is usually gray or tan.
Complaints at first, as with basal cell carcinoma, are absent. In the process of growth, the tumor can reach a size of up to 0’4 inch. At this point, a dense node, which continues to grow, already begins to be felt. In the end, carcinoma approaches the size of a walnut.
The tumor grows in two directions – above or deep into the tissues. The latter is usually accompanied by the formation of an ulcer, which affects not only the dermis and epidermis, but also reaches the bone and muscle tissue.
An ulcer in squamous cell carcinoma does not heal. The patient suffers from excruciating pains at the place of her formation. In the future, a violation of general well-being and infectious complications associated with immunosuppressive processes accompanying any cancer pathology join the complaints.
This is a tumor of neuroectodermal origin. It consists of malignant melanocytes. The main provoking factor is UV radiation.
Melanoma develops both from an existing nevus (mole) and on clean skin.
Signs of malignancy include:
- fuzzy edges;
- uneven coloring;
- diameter over 8/32 inch;
- the evolution of the age spots (any changes in the mole – sudden growth, discoloration, etc.) – the most typical sign!
Do not miss the most popular article in the rubric:
Amaranth oil – properties and applications in cosmetology, reviews, price of funds.
Skin neoplasms belonging to the category of benign, as can be seen in the photo and their description, are not prone to rapid growth, metastasis and relapse after removal.
These tumors include:
- moles (nevi);
- fibromas, etc.
|Atheroma||Damage to the sebaceous gland in the form of cystic growth. The place of localization is the face. The elevated formation is not different from normal skin in color, tightly soldered to it at one point. The contours are clear. Palpation of atheroma is painless.|
|Hemangioma||A neoplasm of vascular origin, refers to childhood tumors. It can be either an independent disease, or a manifestation of another pathology. The course depends on the patient’s age, location, size and depth to which the hemangioma has grown. Frequent placement – head, face, neck, but other localization is possible. The first manifestation is a red nodule (papule) up to 6/32 inch in diameter. Of the complaints – bleeding when accidentally grazed, sometimes – a violation of the function of the organ where the tumor is located.|
|Lymphangioma||Two development options are possible – a congenital malformation or a consequence of impaired lymph flow. The tumor can be located anywhere, but more often it is the oral cavity, neck, upper limbs. Capillary lymphangiomas are multiple vesicles with a yellowish clear liquid inside. The same tumors that arose as a result of impaired lymphatic circulation look like plaques or spots, the diameter of which is slowly increasing.|
|Lipoma||Adipose tissue tumor. More often have a nodular shape. The course is asymptomatic. It is a painless pale pink neoplasm on the leg. The consistency is pasty. The borders are fuzzy.|
|Seborrheic warts||Also called “senile.” They arise as a result of a violation of the differentiation of the cells of the basal layer of the epidermis. Appearance – nodes or plaques that rise above the skin. The surface is hilly. The shape is often round or oval. The color of the wart varies from tan to black.|
|Moles||Or nevi. They are a malformation, they consist of unchanged melanocytes. The color of the rashes is characteristic – from light brown to black, which is associated with various amounts of melanin (dark pigment) in the cells. More often, moles have a smooth surface, sometimes rise above the skin.|
|Fibroma||Fibroma is a tumor that forms from connective tissue. Thick to the touch. Reaches large sizes. Possible malignancy (transition to malignancy) of the tumor.|
Skin neoplasms (photos and descriptions are presented above) of a benign nature, de
spite their relatively safe nature, sometimes they can still turn into precancrosis and even cancer.
Precancrosis is the pathological condition of any tissue of the body, which, with one degree or another, can contribute to the occurrence of a malignant process.
The following diseases are considered as a precancer of the skin:
- Bowen’s disease;
- Paget’s disease and others.
Bowen’s disease is intraepidermal cancer, prone to transition to squamous. It is an inflammatory disease of a chronic nature, which is associated with excessive proliferation of atypical keratinocytes. Occurs in the elderly.
The tumor has an invasive growth, grows not only in the epidermis, but also in deeper lying tissues. It can be located on any part of the skin and mucous membrane, but more often – on the body.
Elements have the appearance of spots of a pink hue with fuzzy rounded edges. Below them is the infiltrate, due to which the formations slightly rise. They are rough to the touch, covered with scales. When desquamating the latter, an erosive, bleeding surface opens.
Paget’s disease is an adenocarcinoma prone to metastasis. The source of growth, as in the case of Buenov’s disease, is located intraepidermally. The typical location is the mammary glands, most accurately the area of the nipple and its areoles.
Tumor growth is infiltrating (grows to underlying tissues). Clinically manifested by a one-sided itchy plaque with clear contours in women older than 40 years. The surface is covered with scales and crusts. The element increases in size, begins to metastasize. The outcome is breast cancer.
Skin neoplasms, photos and descriptions of which were presented above, are diagnosed using general principles. These include the mandatory collection of anamnesis (patient complaints, clinical manifestations of the disease), examination of the patient, a thorough visual study of the lesions and analysis of clinical and instrumental examination methods (MRI, radiography).
The main in the final diagnosis is the histological method. It is a microscopic examination of a site of pathologically altered tissue in order to identify atypical cells.
Treatment of neoplasms on the skin
Treatment methods for skin neoplasms include medication, radiation and surgery. The latter is radical (i.e. allows you to get rid of the disease as completely as possible).
Skin neoplasms are treated medically with antibiotic therapy (photos and a detailed description of the drugs can be found in clinical guides), NSAIDs, opioid analgesics and hemostatic drugs. This method is used as a symptomatic treatment, allows you to alleviate the condition of the patient, somewhat improve the quality of life.
The surgical method is based on the elimination of the neoplasm. The goal of treatment is the final disposal of the disease, the prevention of relapse.
Radiation therapy is most often performed in malignant processes, especially in cases where surgical resolution is not possible. Another goal is to prevent the resumption of tumor growth and its metastases.
Removal of neoplasms on the skin
Methods for removing skin tumors are:
- Cryodestruction (using liquid nitrogen, the tumor freezes, later it dies and disappears). The method is not applied on the head, with large formations and with their intradermal localization.
- Laser Therapy Using laser energy, pathologically overgrown tissues are “burned”.
- Surgical excision. The scope of the operation may be different – removal of a tumor within healthy tissues (fibroma, nevi), together with a capsule (atheroma, lipoma), etc. until the excision of the surrounding skin, subcutaneous tissue, adjacent lymph nodes (squamous cell carcinoma and other malignant tumors).
In order not to miss the moment when neoplasms on the skin begin to threaten life, you need to understand what you have to deal with. Having studied the photo and description of common pathologies, we can assume the source of the disease and consult a specialist in a timely manner.
Skin Tumor Video
How to distinguish a dangerous mole from a safe one:
Characteristic of benign neoplasms on the skin: