An ingrown nail or the scientific “onychocryptosis” is a disease caused by a pathological change in the nail. If untreated, the disease causes complications such as suppuration, swelling, amputation. The disease is accompanied by an unpleasant appearance of the big toe and pain.
- Causes of ingrown toenail
- What will happen if not treated
- How to remove an ingrown toenail
- Radio wave method
- Removal in whole or in part with a scalpel
- Laser treatment
- Schmiden Operation
- Corrective devices
- Use of capolin
- Pharmacy ointments and gels
- Pharmacy fluids for the treatment of ingrown nails
- How to treat ingrown toenails at home
- Folk remedies
- What to do if the ingrown nail festers
- What to do with an ingrown toenail during pregnancy
- What can not be done with an ingrown nail
- Video on the topic: Ingrown toenail
Causes of ingrown toenail
The primary cause of the disease is a hereditary factor. The disease occurs after 30 years, in rare cases, children and the elderly.
Other causes of occurrence:
- wrong shoes. Constant compression leads to the ingrowth of the nail into the skin. Experts do not recommend wearing stubby shoes or narrow-nosed models, high heels. The disease is formed in closed shoes when used in the summer. Humidity provokes softening of the nail plate, the epidermis swells and the nail grows improperly;
- various injuries;
- wrong pedicure;
- individual characteristics of the body.
An ingrown toenail on the big toe can be formed from excess weight and heavy physical exertion. At the initial stage, the disease can be cured at home in conservative ways.
Human fingers have a strong sensitivity. There are many nerve endings at the tips. The disease is determined by severe pain when clicking on the nail.
The main symptoms are:
- the formation of redness, spots, color change;
- sealing the nail plate;
Specialists determine 3 stages of disease progression:
- When moving, a person feels a slight pain, which subsides when removing shoes. There is a slight swelling, redness;
- The state of the nail changes – the acute angle on the nail plate increases, swelling and redness intensify, the throbbing pain is accompanied by decay;
- The disease becomes chronic, the running process is aggravated by swelling, pain, a change in the natural color and tightening of the nail.
In the third stage, spotting is observed. Initial forms respond to conservative treatment. In advanced condition, surgical intervention is required.
A surgeon can diagnose an ingrown nail on the big toe, namely, a podologist. The doctor performs orthonix – a non-surgical way to fix the nail with a flexible plate – it hooks and pulls to the top of the edge of the nail. Ultimately, there is a correction of the shape of the nail.
At the initial stage, surgery is not necessary, a conservative treatment is enough. Also, no tests will be needed. They are prescribed in case of surgical need. A blood and urine test will evaluate the level of inflammation. Sometimes blood donation for sugar is necessary.
In the presence of pus, a bacteriological study may be needed to evaluate the resistance of pathogens to antibacterial drugs. In some cases, an x-ray is performed – the procedure allows you to identify the disease and prevent other diseases during relapse.
What will happen if not treated
In the absence of proper treatment, the disease progresses. Complications lead to the spread of infection, decay of the limb, resulting in amputation of the nail, in severe cases, the finger. Prolonged inflammation provokes the appearance of other diseases. The infection passes to other parts of the body, provoking the appearance of new diseases. A severe case is the formation of gangrene.
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How to remove an ingrown toenail
An ingrown nail on the big toe is removed in various ways – it all depends on the stage of the disease, contraindications, doctor’s recommendations. Ways to eliminate the disease can be conservative and surgical.
Radio wave method
The main advantage of the radio wave method is its painlessness. In addition, after the procedure, the risk of disease again is unlikely. Depending on the neglect of the disease, the time of the operation is determined – 3-5 minutes. Another advantage of the radio wave method is that the patient is not transferred to a hospital, the procedure is performed on an outpatient basis.
Painlessness is characterized by the use of local anesthesia. An injection is made into the finger, after which the neoplasm is removed and the radio wave nail matrix and the germ zone are treated. At the end of the procedure, an antiseptic dressing is applied, and the patient is allowed to go home.
Upon returning home, a wet dressing is not allowed. Change it in the first 5 days. The wound heals in a week. The patient may feel pain, but this is a completely normal condition.
Removal in whole or in part with a scalpel
The surgical method is used in the absence of a positive result of therapeutic treatment. Complete removal, or resection, is necessary when the suppuration of soft tissues occurs. If the nail is not festering, but only thickened, use partial removal.
The patient is given local anesthesia, the doctor with a scalpel cuts out the affected area, treats the wound with an antibiotic. After the operation, gentle treatment and dressings are recommended. Full recovery usually occurs after a month.
The advantage in surgery is the prevention of suppuration of bone tissue. This method has many disadvantages. The most important thing is a long recovery process, healing takes place only after the new nail has fully grown. This method is used very rarely, modern procedures are less painful.
The most gentle method for removing ingrown nails is laser. The procedure has many advantages: there is no need to take a sick leave, the operation is done on an outpatient basis and does not require bed rest after. The procedure takes about 20 minutes. After the operation, the person does not experience pain. Laser removal reduces the risk of abnormal nail growth.
One popular method is Schmiden surgery. Its main advantage is that after the procedure, the risk of an onset of the disease is repeatedly reduced to a minimum. An operation is performed under anesthesia, the nail is cut with scissors, an incision is made on the soft tissues, and granulation is removed. The infected area is removed, sutures or dressing are applied.
Complete healing occurs after 7 days, during which you need to limit physical activity. A dressing change is also imperative. If relapse occurs, antibiotic therapy is prescribed.
An ingrown toenail can be cured without surgery. Medical practice offers new methods for removing ingrown nails – staples and plates. The devices are mounted on the leg without causing discomfort. There is a quick period of rehabilitation.
- Oniclip is an epoxy coated fixture. The main advantage is that the pressure of the plate can be adjusted by the patient himself. Used in all stages of the disease, even in the absence of a nail;
gold gold bar – a small steel plate is practically invisible when worn. It is glued to the nail with glue, used at all stages of the disease;
Podofix – after installing the device, the patient immediately feels relief, pain subsides, there is no feeling of constriction.
In addition to plates, modern medicine offers as an alternative way to treat staples. They differ in installation method and design. The bracket is a fixture in the form of a thin nickel or chrome wire. The procedure is painless, quick, and practically does not cause complications.
The bracket is made individually for the patient, depending on the shape of the nail. The disadvantage of this method is the need to make a correction – to tighten or loosen the bracket.
The most common staples:
- A milling cutter is a wire with hook-shaped ends of a thin form. Starts under the edges of the nail and fix it;
- Combiped – used in case of unilateral development of the disease. One end fixes the nail with a hook, the other is glued to the nail plate;
- 3TO – a bracket consisting of 3 parts – the side fasten with the edges of the nail, the loop formed between them regulates their tension.
Plates and staples look quite aesthetically pleasing, do not require long-term restoration, anesthesia, sick leave . After installing the device, the patient can engage in everyday activities, sports, swimming and even paint nails. The disadvantages include the high price and the inability to use the method with advanced stages.
Use of capolin
The special material capolin is prescribed to reduce pain and accelerate wound healing. A soft tissue device lifts the edges of the nail and fixes its position. Before use, the tissues are softened with saline. The tampon moves deep into the affected area and is fixed.
Capolin changes daily until you can cut the corner of the nail. Treatment refers to a long, but more gentle. This method is most effective in the early stages, as well as for prevention.
Pharmacy ointments and gels
Various gels and ointments are used in the therapeutic method.
The most effective drugs:
- Nogtinorm – palm oil, licorice and St. John’s wort extracts with a healing effect are added to the composition of this substance. When applying the ointment, the nail plate softens, the inflammation is removed, the growth of the nail is normalized. Use the product daily after steaming the legs. The cost of the ointment is $ 2 – $ 3 .;
- The demixide in the form of a gel has an anti-inflammatory effect, is applied to the affected area. The procedure does not take much time, does not require bandages, is performed 1 time in 2 days. The gel can not be used with hypersensitivity, with diseases of the liver, kidneys, heart, eye diseases. Contraindicated in pregnant women and children. Cost – $ 0,68 – $ 3,1 .;
- Vishnevsky ointment – stops the development of infection, kills the fungus, relieves swelling and pain. The product has a sharp aroma due to the birch tar included in the composition. The ingredient is antimicrobial and antiseptic. Xeroform dries the inflamed area. The ointment is applied to gauze and applied to the place, fixed on top with plastic wrap and a bandage. The cost of funds ranges from $ 0,68 – $ 0,95. per tube;
- Ichthyol ointment – reduces inflammation, pain, destroys microbes. It is applied to the affected area, covered with gauze (napkin), fixed with a bandage. Better to use at night. Repeat the procedure until complete recovery. The price of the ointment is $ 0,41 – $ 1,6;
- Levomekol – has a calming and antibacterial effect. It is applied in the same way as Vishnevsky ointment. It is allowed to use the drug during pregnancy and for people with allergic diseases. The price of the drug ranges from $ 1,09 – $ 1,9.
Pharmacy fluids for the treatment of ingrown nails
In addition to gels, various liquids are used:
- Dimexide is an anti-inflammatory drug. On its basis, compresses are performed and applied to the affected area. The solution can wash the wound, the cost of the drug is $ 0,68 – $ 1,4 .;
- Scholl liquid – softens the nail plate, removing germs and fungus. Apply twice a day. The effect of the procedure is noticeable after 7 days. The tool at a price ranges from $ 10 – $ 14 .;
Gehwol liquid – effective at an early stage, prevents nail ingrowth, softens the plate
, reduces pain. Before use, the finger is cleaned, dried, 2 drops are applied to the area. The price of the drug is $ 11 – $ 34.
How to treat ingrown toenails at home
Treatment and prevention of the disease can be performed independently at home.
- use the baths at intervals of 20 minutes. in 3 days. The procedure reduces the symptoms of the disease;
- raise the ingrown edges with cotton;
- apply antibiotic-based ointments;
- choose the optimal shoes in size, avoid pointed shapes and excessive heels;
- drink painkillers.
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Ingrown nails on big or other toes are treated with special baths:
- on the basis of chamomile – 60 g of plant per 0,3 gallon of water. The grass is infused for half an hour, the procedure lasts 30 minutes. To reduce the pain, apply a piece of gauze;
- saline – 60 g of salt per 0,3 gallon of water. The treatment time is up to 20 minutes. After using the bath, swelling, pain, and inflammation are relieved;
- with baking soda – 30 g of product per 0,8 gallon of water. The procedure time is half an hour. Baking soda dries the skin, reducing pain, swelling.
To traditional folk remedies are considered more effective:
- aloe – a sheet is cut in half, applied to the desired place at night;
- butter – rubbed after applying the bath in the evening. You can put a piece of oil on cheesecloth, wrap your finger. In the morning, a saline bath is recommended;
- onion and honey – chopped onion is combined with honey, applied to the affected area at night;
- plantain – after the bath, wrap a finger around the plant, bandage;
- badger fat – superimposed on cheesecloth, and then on the affected area. Best used at night;
- potassium permanganate – combine a few drops with water, steam the legs;
- castor oil – dissolved in 0,8 gallon of water 3,38 fluid ounce of the drug. The feet are lowered into the solution for 15 minutes;
- lemon peel – grated peel is combined with vegetable oil, applied to the affected area.
What to do if the ingrown nail festers
Pus formation occurs with neglected development. It is possible to suspend it with the help of ointments, baths, but they will not cure the disease. The appearance of pus is the third stage, which requires treatment with a scalpel, laser, radio waves.
What to do with an ingrown toenail during pregnancy
During pregnancy, many conservative and surgical methods are forbidden to women. If the patient’s condition is good, there are no contraindications, there is no threat to the fetus, then some procedures are allowed – baths, gels, ointments, various devices.
Plates and staples are considered optimal; anesthesia is not used for their installation. With the advanced state of the disease, the laser method is used.
What can not be done with an ingrown nail
In case of a disease, it is forbidden to perform the following actions:
- wear tight shoes, pointed shoes, high heels;
- do sport;
- ignore the progression of the disease.
If the cause is hereditary, then it is almost impossible to influence it.
In other cases, you must adhere to the rules:
- do the right pedicure – do not round the shape, do not cut the ends too much, approach a straight line
- wash your feet thoroughly;
- choose the right shoes;
Ingrown toenails bring not only pain, but also a feeling of discomfort. This disease can be cured in various ways. Many of them allow you to avoid relapse in the future.
Video on the topic: Ingrown toenail
Elena Malysheva will tell how to get rid of an ingrown nail at home: