Statistics say that every third person is familiar with dandruff. At the same time, it is perceived as nothing more than an annoying cosmetic defect, to eliminate which it is enough to buy the first shampoo that has come across with the corresponding marking.
This is a misconception: this condition of the scalp is usually not one, but a set of reasons. Understanding this will help in the selection of treatment methods, and the result of such a systematic approach will certainly be long-term.
What is dandruff and its causes
The top layer of the scalp is constantly updated. Old cells are dehydrated and exfoliated. Typically, the cycle of complete regeneration of the epidermis takes about a month, and it goes unnoticed by humans.
If the period of the renewal process is shortened to one to two weeks, then exfoliating flakes in the form of white flakes, accumulating on the skin and hair, become noticeable to both the owner and others. This phenomenon is dandruff.
If dandruff belongs to the dry type, then its scales are small and easily showered on clothing. Oily dandruff is accompanied by excessive sebum secretion of the scalp, due to which its particles stick together and peel off with difficulty. Many complain of itchy scalp, regardless of the type of dandruff.
The root cause of dandruff is the activation of bacteria and fungi, which in a certain amount are part of the healthy microflora of the scalp, without causing trouble to the owner, as well as an imbalance between them.
The population of microorganisms can change and cause cells to actively grow and exfoliate for a number of reasons:
- hormonal changes (for example, in adolescence);
- disturbances in the sebaceous glands (insufficient or excessive secretion);
- decreased immunity;
- gastrointestinal tract diseases, oncology, chronic infections;
- improper hair care, aggressive external environment (improper shampoo, constant use of a hot hair dryer, exposure to the sun or frost without a hat).
Top 10 Dandruff Remedies
|No.||Name / Manufacturer||Release form||Active substance||Act|
|1||Head & Shoulders (Procter & Gamble)||shampoo||zinc pyrithione, zinc carbonate||antifungal|
|2||Nizoral (Janssen Pharmaceutical N.V.)||shampoo||ketoconazole||antifungal|
|3||Clear (Unilever)||shampoo||Climbazole, zinc pyrithione||antifungal|
|4||Friderm tar (Schering-Plow)||shampoo||coal tar||anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, keratolytic, cytostatic|
|5||Sulsena (Amalgama Suite)||shampoo, paste, oil||selenium disulfide||antifungal, cytostatic|
|6||Keto Plus (Glenmark PHARMACEUTICALS Ltd.)||shampoo||ketoconazole and zinc pyrithione||antifungal|
|7||Seborin (Schwarzkopf)||shampoo||climbazole, salicylic acid||antifungal, keratolytic, cytostatic|
|8||Estel Otium Unique (UNICOSMETIC)||shampoo||pink pyrithione, pyroctone olamine||antifungal, keratolytic, cytostatic|
|9||DERCOS Technique (Vichy)||shampoo||salicylic acid, selenium sulfide||antifungal, keratolytic, cytostatic|
|10||Fitoval Intensive Care (KRKA)||Shampoo||cyclopirox olamine, zinc pyrithione||antifungal, cytostatic|
An effective remedy for dandruff can be in the form of a special shampoo – this is an affordable and logical option for combating the disease at its initial stage. Shampoos are easy to apply evenly directly to the affected area, they have a local effect: the active ingredients do not enter the systemic circulation and do not affect the body.
In order for the cleansing shampoo to turn into a treatment shampoo, it must contain at least one active ingredient.
Taking into account that dandruff is almost always accompanied by fungus, and the main visible problem is the pathological proliferation of scalp cells, anti-seborrheic components must act in 3 directions:
- Antifungal effect: inhibition of the growth of microorganisms and, as a result, a decrease in the population of the fungus. This action is possessed by: ketoconazole, selenium disulfide, zinc pyrithione, klimbazol, cyclopirok, octopyrox.
- Cytostatic effect , that is, restraining the speed of cell division. As a result, visually dandruff becomes less. Pyrocton olamine, tar, selenium disulfide have a cytostatic effect.
- Keratolytic effect – softening and exfoliating the upper layer of the epidermis. Sulfur, tar and salicylic acid do a good job of this.
According to the frequency of use as an active ingredient in shampoos, zinc pyrithione occupies the first place. This ingredient can be found both in budget products and among salon or pharmacy cosmetics. So, affordable shampoo from Schwarzkopf Schauma for dandruff at a price of about $ 1,36. contains exactly this anti-seborrheic component, and at the same time has a high reputation among users.
Exactly the same ingredient in combination with salicylic acid can be found
in L’oreal Professionnel Instant Clear pure salon shampoo at a price of $ 8 – $ 11. Judging by the reviews, this shampoo copes well with dandruff and itching, adds shine to the hair, and facilitates their styling.
Ketoconazole is the leader in the presence of dandruff in pharmacy shampoos. Shampoo Sebozol (LLC “Dionysus”) contains 1% of this substance. The average price is $ 4 – $ 5. per 3,38 fluid ounce. Shampoo Ketoconazole Antiperhot (LLC “Mirolla”) contains the active substance in a dosage of 2%, the cost of the product is about $ 2,72.
For comparison, for the popular Nizoral shampoo containing 2% ketoconazole, the pharmacy will have to give a significantly larger amount – about $ 8 – $ 10. for a tiny bottle of 2,03 fluid ounce. All shampoos with ketoconazole are recommended to be kept on the hair for 2-3 minutes and used in courses.
In most cases, they alleviate the condition of the scalp the first time and significantly reduce the oily hair. Among dandruff shampoos, there are a number of products, which contain exclusively natural ingredients.
So, Natura Siberica dandruff shampoo ( $ 4,08.) Contains oak moss extract as an anti-seborrheic component, and nettle extract as a dandruff dermatological Home Institut shampoo. Both tools are in about the same price category and have conflicting user reviews. The effectiveness of natural ingredients is a purely individual value.
After washing hair balm is usually used for additional care: moisturizing, nourishing and tightening the hair along the length, removing static electricity, giving shine. But if the balm is declared by the manufacturer as a remedy for dandruff, then first of all it is intended to enhance the effect of a similar shampoo or work as an independent anti-seborrheic remedy.
It is necessary to apply such a product not only along the length of the hair, like a regular balm, but also on the scalp.
Many manufacturers produce in a series of dandruff and shampoo, and balm. So, Clear offers a choice of 4 options for the dandruff conditioner balm: for moisturizing, restoring, from hair loss and with herbal extracts. Each of them contains the same dandruff component as in shampoos of the same brand – zinc pyrithione. The price of Clear balms is about $ 2,72.
An intensive anti-dandruff balm mask from the Belarusian manufacturer Belita-Viteks (about $ 1,63) also comes in a complex with a similar shampoo and contains zinc pyriotin and salicylic acid. An effective remedy for dandruff of natural origin is birch tar. Balms with this component are quite popular.
An example is the preventive tarry balm-conditioner against dandruff ( $ 1,9., Belita-Viteks), a tar mask from Nevsky Cosmetics ( $ 2,72. For 10,14 fluid ounce). The funds are mostly positive reviews: the scalp is cleansed, hair growth is accelerated, but many do not like the sharp specific smell of tar and the fact that it dries hair very much.
Antiseborrheic agents in the form of lotions are a convenient option for use, especially if they are equipped with spray guns. Apply such preparations to clean scalp 1-2 times a day. As a rule, such lotions do not leave stickiness and do not require rinsing.
Bifon Lotion (Dermapharm AG) contains the antifungal components bifonazole and pyrocton olamine, as well as anti-inflammatory components (panthenol, allantoin). This product is well tolerated and does not dry the scalp.
The advantage of this drug is that there can be no getting used to it and a decrease in the effectiveness of the effect: the fungal microflora does not develop resistance to bifonazole. The only negative is the price of Bifon: you will have to order the lotion in Germany at a price of about $ 14. per 3,38 fluid ounce, since in USA it is currently not for sale.
Belosalik Lotion (Belupo) contains betamethasone steroid hormone and salicylic acid as an active ingredient. The drug relieves inflammation and itching, has an antifungal effect. Sold in pharmacies at a price of about $ 9,52. per 3,38 fluid ounce. Yves Rocher anti-dandruff lotion is a remedy in which manufacturers have relied on the effectiveness of herbal ingredients.
In this case, it is an extract of pomegranate peel. Salicylic acid is also indicated. There is a lotion of $ 7,89., It does not help everyone. The effectiveness of Squanorm (Ducray) lotion against dandruff with zinc sulfate in the composition justifies its high cost. The average price for this tool is $ 12,24.
It happens that the reaction to the local use of antiseborrheic agents is not enough pronounced or even absent. Inflammation joins dandruff, the affected area increases. In this case, they turn to medical treatment. Systemic treatment of dandruff includes the intake of antifungal drugs in the form of tablets, vitamins A and E.
In especially severe cases, a course of corticosteroids is prescribed. Even antibiotic therapy may be required if a bacterial infection attaches to seborrheic dermatitis and boils and ulcers appear. Antihistamines are prescribed to relieve itching. A comprehensive treatment regimen is prescribed by a trichologist or dermatologist.
OTC antifungal drugs in the form of tablets include:
- Ketoconazole DS (200 mg), the average price is $ 2,04. for 10 pcs.;
- Itraconazole (100 mg), the average price is $ 5,44. for 14 pcs.;
- Terbinafine (250 mg), the average price is $ 2,72. for 14 pcs.;
- Fluconazole (150 mg), the price is about $ 1,36. for 4 pcs.
For the treatment of dandruff, medications in the form of ointments can also be used: Batrafen (cyclopirox 1%), Sebozol (ketoconazole 2%), Perhotal (ketoconazole 2%), as well as sulfuric and salicylic. The disadvantage of using ointments is that it is inconvenient to apply them to the scalp and drugs contaminate the hair. But if the lesion is local in nature, then this option also cannot be ruled out.
An effective remedy for dandruff from the point of view of traditional medicine can be as affordable as possible, natural and cheap. This is true for those who doubt the effectiveness and safety of cosmetics and pharmacy products, or are looking for the most affordable treatment option.
As a rule, in addition to cleansing the scalp from dandruff, such products have a positive effect on hair growth, their quality, and help with hair loss.
Among folk recipes, the most effective are:
Kefir of medium fat content. Used alone or in combination with other ingredients: oils, egg yolk, mustard, honey. The kefir mixture needs to be slightly warmed up and applied to the hair roots, then distributing
along the entire length. Cover the hair with a film and wrap it with a heated towel. Leave for an hour, then wash your hair with shampoo. If mustard is added to kefir, longer than 10 minutes. the mixture is better not to keep. It is advisable to do the procedure before each head wash for at least a month.
- Vegetable and essential oils. Castor, burdock, olive, linseed or coconut oil is recommended as the base. 3-5 tablespoons of essential oil with antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effects are added to two tablespoons of heated oil. Such properties are characteristic of tea tree oil, eucalyptus, cedar, lavender, rosemary, ylang-ylang. A mixture of oils is applied to the scalp and hair in length, wrapped in a towel. After an hour, wash your hair as usual.
- Decoctions of herbs for rinsing hair. From dandruff use nettle, burdock, sage. The ratio of grass to water is 1:10. The raw material is poured with water at room temperature, heated in a water bath for 15 minutes, insisted 45 minutes, filtered. The resulting broth is rinsed with hair after washing.
- Salt peeling cleanses the scalp well, acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. On the damp scalp, parting with handfuls, apply any salt without flavoring. You can enrich it yourself with essential oils of mint or tea tree. After a light massage for 3-5 minutes. the hair is washed with shampoo. This tool is recommended for oily hair.
How to choose a remedy for dandruff
When choosing a shampoo for dandruff, women must first determine their hair type, as there are remedies for both dry and oily hair. This mainly applies to cosmetic products. Among them there are many remedies for dandruff, which in addition to the main purpose, are designed to solve some of the accompanying features and problems.
So, there are anti-seborrheic shampoos for colored or damaged hair, for sensitive scalp, for volume, moisturizing, from hair loss. If a woman chooses narrowly targeted pharmacy remedies for dandruff, it must be borne in mind that they usually dry hair very much, therefore additional care is required: balm, indelible oil or conditioners.
In men, the sebaceous glands work more intensively, the level of testosterone is higher, therefore, dandruff is more common. When choosing a shampoo for dandruff, men need to focus on their individual needs, take into account the severity of the problem and not neglect information about the type of scalp and dandruff.
Specialized men’s shampoos, which are produced by many cosmetic brands, in addition to the obvious difference in design and fragrance, also have a different level of acidity than women’s products. They contain more cleansing components and less care.
The problem of hair loss, sensitivity of the scalp, the presence of itching – all these topical issues for men are reflected in the variety of dandruff shampoos on the market today. As for the means for the treatment of dandruff in children, then you need to be as careful as possible.
Some pharmacy antiseborrheic agents are not intended for babies, but are perfect for teens. It is necessary to find out the age limits for a particular product. It is better to use neutral shampoos with natural ingredients, and to combat dandruff with folk remedies, be sure to find out its original cause.
Dandruff is a disease that, with seeming harmlessness, is very difficult to cure once and for all, especially if you use exclusively external methods of exposure. Only under the condition of an integrated approach, taking into account all the factors contributing to its appearance in each particular case, it is possible with the help of a trichologist’s doctor to choose a treatment that will be truly effective.
Useful videos on choosing effective anti-dandruff treatments
A fragment of the program “Live healthy” about seborrhea:
How to get rid of dandruff at home: