Breast reduction is often a forced procedure. The operation involves some risks, but women agree to them to get rid of problems with the spine and other disorders.
- Causes of breast hypertrophy in women and men
- The possibilities of reduction mammoplasty
- Indications for surgery
- Technique for large breasts
- Technique for Small and Medium Breast Glands
- Limitations and contraindications
- Preparation period
- Recovery process
- Possible complications
- Will the scars remain
- Pregnancy and childbirth after surgery
- How to choose a plastic surgery clinic
- Prices in public and private clinics, promotions
- In what cases will the operation be free (insurance)
- Mammoplasty video
Causes of breast hypertrophy in women and men
It is impossible to pinpoint the causes of breast hypertrophy. This process can be genetically predetermined or dependent on hormonal levels. Another suggestion of scientists associated with this violation is the effect of fermentopathy on the condition of the mammary glands.
Perhaps the cause is sometimes overweight, but in this case, the amount of fat mass prevails over the volume of glandular tissue. A natural enlargement of the glands is observed during and after pregnancy.
The possibilities of reduction mammoplasty
Reduction mammoplasty is the type of surgical intervention in which the breast is reduced by resection of excess skin and tissues.
The main goals of reduction mammoplasty:
- elimination of excess tissue;
- correction of the nipple, areola;
- getting rid of stretched skin of the gland.
Each of these disorders manifests itself differently in all patients. The surgeon pre-analyzes each situation, choosing the best tactics for the implementation of mammoplasty.
Breast reduction surgery should be carried out according to a technique that solves such problems:
- the results of the intervention are stored for a long time;
- sensitivity of external elements of the breast (skin, areola, nipple) is preserved;
- the size of the scars after the intervention is minimal;
- postoperative traces are located in hidden areas;
- symmetrical glands of an aesthetic shape are created;
- glands are reduced, their proper nutrition is provided;
- minimized blood loss during surgery.
It is important to prevent the development of complications:
- early – divergence of scars, hematomas, suppuration, nutritional failures of the nipples;
- later – reduction in the volume of glands; a change in the shape of the areola, nipple and the entire gland.
Changes in the shape of the areoles and nipples were observed in half of the patients in the postoperative phase. Surgeons are advised to preliminarily negotiate these statistics with women, to warn about the risks.
Indications for surgery
Too large glands often cause a woman physical and psychological discomfort. This is the main indication for reduction mammoplasty. Frequent concomitant disorders are spinal deformities, osteochondrosis.
With breast hypertrophy are also associated:
- chronic mastitis;
- diaper rash;
In Europe, America, this type of mammoplasty is a mandatory component of insurance medicine (carried out for free), since this procedure is aimed at caring for the health of the body. As an aesthetic practice, it is used very rarely.
Technique for large breasts
If the volume of each breast exceeds 2 pounds, a T-shaped technique is used. The doctor encircles the areola of the nipple with a scalpel, then draws a line down. Then the surgeon “draws” a horizontal line with a knife and removes excess tissue. The areola, the nipple is separated, pulled up.
If a patient has found gigantomastia (the mass of tissue being eliminated is 2 pounds), it becomes impossible to implement the described method. Anchor method is always combined with mastopexy, liposuction.
This procedure is considered traumatic, it provides a long recovery period. One of the possible negative consequences of the procedure is a loss of sensitivity of the glands (full or partial). Breastfeeding after this operation is almost completely excluded.
Technique for Small and Medium Breast Glands
The operation to reduce breast medium and small volumes (up to 1 pounds) is carried out according to the method of vertical reduction mammoplasty. The second name of the procedure is the vertical seam method. The operation performed using this technique lasts 2 hours. Adipose tissue is removed from the incisions “drawn” around the areola.
The operation is considered less traumatic than the classical technique (“anchor”). A breast lift is not necessary with its slight omission. Vertical mammoplasty does not violate the sensitivity of the glands.
There are other techniques to reduce small glands:
- periareolar incision: consists of 2 incisions along the areolar-nipple zone;
- liposuction: getting rid of fat mass through a catheter inserted into the gland (between tissues).
The optimal technique is chosen by the specialist after fixing the data on the patient (weight, health indicators, age).
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Limitations and contraindications
The breast reduction procedure is not recommended if the patient has found:
- clotting problems;
- cardiovascular disorders;
- malfunctions of the thyroid gland;
- disease in the acute phase.
It is temporarily forbidden to reduce the glands:
- women during lactation (this restriction is valid until the end of the lactation process);
- girls under 18 years old;
- pregnant women;
- women who have no children (this surgical intervention is allowed only after the birth of the child and the completion of lactation);
- if a viral infection is detected in the patient’s body;
- in the case of diagnosed obesity in the patient (surgery is postponed until the reduction and stabilization of body weight).
Special recommendations for the appointment of the procedure:
- surgery of any type is not performed during menstruation;
- after completion of the restoration procedure, at least 11 months should pass. before planning a pregnancy;
- a patient who has undergone reduction mammoplasty should not breast-feed;
- postpartum lactation must be blocked with hormonal drugs;
- it is advisable to correct the mammary gland
s no earlier than 1 g after the termination of breastfeeding.
Comprehensive examination is an obligatory procedure before surgical reduction of the mass of the mammary glands.
Breast reduction surgery includes a mandatory preparatory phase, which includes:
- Consultation of the specialist who conducts the examination, interviews the patient.
- Clinical researches.
Among the studies mandatory are the following:
- OAM, OJSC;
- hormonal background check;
- blood biochemistry;
- assessment of blood coagulation features;
- determination of the Rhesus factor group;
- check for tumor markers;
- HIV antibody test;
- determination of the presence of antibodies to hepatitis virus;
- oncological research;
After passing through all stages of the study, the client re-visits the surgeon.
During the examination, the specialist determines:
- list of necessary drugs for anesthesia;
- the length of the recovery period;
- date, place of procedure;
- goals of surgery;
- technique of the operation.
Over the next 3 weeks before surgery, a woman should not:
- to be under UV rays (access to the solarium is prohibited);
- consume drinks containing alcohol, smoke;
- take drugs that adversely affect blood coagulation (Analgin, Aspirin);
- take hormonal contraception drugs;
- carry out treatment with any medications, biological additives, vitamins (with the exception of drugs recommended by the surgeon).
The patient is hospitalized on the morning of the day of surgery or the day before the procedure. Immediately before the intervention, an anesthetist comes to the patient to agree on the choice of anesthetics and the risks of pain relief.
It is not recommended to eat for 9 hours before surgery. The last serving of food should be low-calorie.
Breast restoration is carried out by special methods. The technique is determined by the doctor, taking into account the amount of adipose tissue to be eliminated, the age of the woman, and especially the gland prolapse.
The table describes the techniques of this type of surgical intervention:
|Method name||Execution Features|
|T-shaped technique (anchor)||It is used for women with a volume of each gland from 1 pounds. The surgeon encircles the areola with a scalpel, draws a line to the chest fold, cuts the skin horizontally|
|Vertical Sectional Technique||The most popular plastic surgery technique. In the course of it, an instrument is passed over the skin around the areola and to the base of the glands.|
|Periareolar incision||Consists of 2 cuts made around the areola|
|Liposuction||It is considered a simple procedure, including the elimination of excess fat mass through a catheter. The technique is the least traumatic. It is used with skin tightening.|
The sequence of actions of the doctor:
- A preliminary marking is carried out. It is carried out while the patient is sitting on a stool, since in the lying position the glands expand.
- Guided by the marking, the specialist holds with a scalpel, eliminates excess tissue.
- Areola correction is performed. She is pulled up with the nipple. Specialists do not allow damage to blood vessels, ducts. In general, the surgeon tries to preserve the sensitivity of the glands.
- Finish the procedure by stitching the incisions. Deep tissues are joined using self-absorbable sutures. Outside, the skin is sewn along the nipple – this is a cosmetic seam. Next, drainage is introduced to remove fluids.
- A pressure dressing is applied over the seams.
The duration of the plastic procedure is 4 hours. All this time, general anesthesia has been in effect.
Breast reduction surgery ends with a recovery phase. A hospital hospital after such a procedure lasts 48 hours. On the first day, the woman remains in intensive care.
She is prescribed such drugs:
- anti-edema drugs;
- pain medication;
- antibacterial drugs.
For 2 weeks after discharge, the woman remains under outpatient supervision, medical supervision. Bandaging wounds is carried out by a specialist. After 8 days, removal of stitches is allowed. Sometimes the seams are left for 15 days. Bruises, swelling disappear after 3 weeks.
In the postoperative phase, the patient must:
- not allow conception (within 7 months);
- keep from diets (dropped pounds can affect the shape of the glands);
- control physical activity, prevent overwork (up to 6 months);
- Do not visit the sauna, jacuzzi, pool, fitness facilities, solarium (at least 3 months);
- clean your chest very carefully using running water; basting is prohibited (1.5 months);
- do not use medicines to narrow blood vessels, alcohol, cigarettes;
- do not add spicy seasonings to the dishes, a lot of salt;
- reduce fluid intake (up to 27,05 fluid ounce per day);
- refrain from sexual activity (until the stitches are removed);
- refuse water procedures in the bath (shower is allowed after 4 days);
- during a night’s rest use a pillow in the form of a roller (put under the back); it helps to reduce stress, reduce swelling (for 2 weeks); < /li>
- use special underwear to fix the glands (4 months).
It is important that after a corrective intervention a lot of rest. If you experience unpleasant sensations in the gland area, you must immediately report the problem to the surgeon. The final results of the procedure will be evaluated after a year.
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Breast reduction by surgical methods can lead to some disorders. There are two types of complications after surgery: early, late. The first appear 1 day after the plastic procedure.
Such violations include:
- seroma – accumulation of fluid; introduce drainage to prevent problems;
- hematoma – an accumulation of blood clots associated with a vascular injury; without special treatment, pathology can lead to suppuration;
- necrosis – a consequence of eliminating a large amount of fat cells, circulatory failure;
- suppuration of the suture – the result of bacteria; also occurs with seroma; this complication is eliminated by antibacterial treatment;
- seam divergence is a consequence of tissue tension.
Late pathologies appear during the recovery period (a couple of months after the procedure).
These consequences include:
- impaired nipple sensitivity: the entire surface of the nipples or some of their parts becomes insensitive; pathology is recorded after 3 days; with the technique of vertical incision, this complication is eliminated independently after 6 months;
- rough scarring – associated with the elimination of a large amount of tissue;
- thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis;
- a change in the shape of the areola, nipple;
- areola migration (consequences of specialist error);
- retraction of the nipple;
- secondary weight gain of the gland.
The last pathology occurs if:
- the initial size of the glands was caused by hormonal disruptions that were not resolved before the corrective procedure;
- the woman became pregnant;
- the procedure was a teenage patient;
- during recovery, body weight has changed dramatically.
In order to prevent the development of these pathologies, it is important to choose a professional clinic, a trusted surgeon with an excellent reputation. It is also necessary to follow the instructions of a specialist.
The recovery phase after mammoplasty should last from 6 months. The body is restored, tissues are regenerated, the scars heal. Important for at least 6 months. use medical underwear, cover necessary areas with recommended creams. After a year, the glands will form completely.
Will the scars remain
Connecting the tissue after the incision, the specialist makes small sutures in invisible areas (in the lower chest, around the areola). This is a cosmetic necessity. After 6 months recovery scars begin to fade, fade. They become invisible, even if the chest is bare.
After the classical operation (elimination of a large mass of fat), the formation of large scars is assumed. If they do not disappear even after the recovery phase, surgical elimination of these deficiencies is allowed.
Pregnancy and childbirth after surgery
Pregnancy planning is allowed after 11 months. after the procedure. If the body has recovered fully – in pregnancy, childbirth, the procedure passed should not be reflected. It is nevertheless worth stipulating a possible pregnancy with a surgeon. It is not recommended to allow prolonged lactation after any of the techniques performed. The possibility of breastfeeding is also negotiated with a specialist.
How to choose a plastic surgery clinic
First of all, they are looking for reviews on this topic, backed by photos of corrected breasts.
Studying the proposals of various institutions, pay attention to:
- availability of accreditation;
- price of the procedure;
- staff qualifications;
- reviews about the surgeon.
After reading reviews of different specialists, 3 surgeons with extensive experience are selected. It is important to talk with them before making a decision.
It is worth asking about:
- surgeon qualifications;
- the number of operations performed;
- practiced techniques;
- guaranteed result;
- drugs prescribed for the postoperative phase;
- recovery duration;
- possible risks;
- postoperative care;
- place of procedure;
- actions in case of late negative consequences.
The staff, the chief specialist must guarantee accessibility for the patient around the clock and daily. This is important, because all patients are individual, the reactions of organisms are different.
Prices in public and private clinics, promotions
Most of the institutions specializing in reduction mammoplasty are located in New York. The price of the corrective procedure is from $ 2040. up to $ 5440.
You can contact one of these clinics:
- New York “Center for Plastic Surgery” (from $ 2720);
- Atlanta Clinic “Brazil” ( $ 2040 and above);
- New York clinic “Avromed” (at least $ 3400);
- Reforma New York Center (about $ 2720);
- New York clinic “SM-PLASTIC” ( $ 2040).
The listed institutions offer the following services (included in the price):
- anesthesia, medications;
- the procedure itself, the necessary consultations, support during the first weeks of recovery (14 days);
- food, accommodation;
- translator (if necessary);
- transfer services.
In clinics in Israel, Germany, Switzerland, the procedure costs 10000 euros (approximate price). About the shares should be clarified when registering for the procedure in any institution.
In what cases will the operation be free (insurance)
Some countries (for example, Germany, America) have included such a procedure in health insurance. In USA, this plastic surgery is performed only for a fee, because it is not registered in the compulsory medical insurance.
The volume of the mamm
ary glands affects not only the aesthetic image of a woman, but also her health. If there is a need for breast reduction, it is worth resorting to plastic surgery techniques. For the operation, it is important to contact professionals.
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