The presence of pigmentation on the body, and in particular on the face, is a complex concept. The occurrence of pathologies in violation of the staining of individual sections. To treat an unpleasant problem, it is necessary to identify the cause of the formation. This is the only way to get the desired result.
- Types of age spots on the face
- Causes of pigmentation
- Is it possible to permanently get rid of age spots
- Using skin lightening products
- Pros and cons of skin lightening agents
- Whitening products
- Selection rules
- Cosmetic procedures
- Laser peeling
- Ultrasonic Peeling
- Chemical peeling
- Salon Whitening
- Traditional medicine methods
- Video on the topic: Pigmentation on the face. Reasons and treatment
Types of age spots on the face
Some pigments are responsible for the skin color of a person: melanin, bilirubin, hemoglobin, etc. In cases of an increase or decrease in their number, similar problems arise.
There are several varieties:
- Freckles . The most common type of pigmentation. Light-skinned people are especially prone to it. They appear after a long exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as a result of which the pigment is unevenly collected in different parts of the skin. Appear on the face, neck, chest, arms. They can be small to brown in large numbers. As a rule, in cold periods, they disappear or turn pale. With increasing age, their intensity becomes less.
- Nevuses – spots (birthmarks), intensely colored areas with smooth edges. The reasons for the appearance, as in other types of pigmentation, are the uneven distribution of staining cells. Coloring is gentle from beige to brown with dark tones. An alarm should be caused by the phenomenon of growth of such spots, there is a likelihood of degeneration into oncology.
- Dyschromia during gestation . Pigmentation during pregnancy appears quite often. Color intensity and location are different. After birth, such spots disappear. But there are times when they remain, and then cosmetic assistance is needed.
- Chloasma – are large spots with pigmented spots located on the face and mainly occur in young people. They have uneven outlines, gradually unite, turning into one spot of a large size of an involuntary shape. Localized on the neck, ears. Almost do not go to the decollete zone. Under UV, the size increases. Hormonal imbalance is the main reason for the appearance of such spots.
- Vitiligo – stains that are not treatable, because they are not fully understood. It is rare. People with albinism (another name for vitiligo), they lack or partially have cells that produce melanin. As a result, discolored (pigment-free) spots are formed. In the presence of such spots is not recommended, and often even prohibited, exposure to the sun. When exposed to sunlight, they can develop into oncology.
Separately, age-related pigmentation is isolated. It is characterized by dark brown spots of various sizes. They appear under the excessive influence of solar ultraviolet radiation. They are characterized by the fact that they do not change color under the influence of any factors. For example, like freckles at some time of the year.
Age pigmentation manifests itself with a change in hormonal balance in connection with the onset of menopause.
Outages in the liver can also be the cause. Allocate:
- Lentigo is the pigmentation inherent in older people. Most often appear in places subject to prolonged exposure to the sun, in place from a sunburn. With menopause, lentigo increases.
- Keratoma is a plaque of round shape, scaly structure. Mostly gray with a yellowish tint. There is a likelihood of conversion to cancer education. Its removal is recommended.
- Spotted pigmentation (senile freckles), appear on the shoulders, hands.
- Xanthoma of the eyelids – spots appear under the eyes, or in the inner corners.
Causes of pigmentation
Facial pigmentation: causes and treatment (which will be discussed below) are established by a specialist. Their appearance is a process of increased occurrence of pigment in the skin.
Zones can have a light shade, reddish or dark. The shape ranges from flat to uneven. They have hereditary causes or are acquired. In such areas, the skin becomes drier, rough and prone to wrinkles.
Common causes of pigmentation:
- Heredity. The inherited can manifest itself even at a young age.
- Vitamin deficiency. Melanin is also produced using vitamins, with their deficiency, the skin is more susceptible to external negative factors and brownish spots appear.
- Ultraviolet is the main cause of such manifestations.
- The period of pregnancy, the postpartum period – arise under the influence of changes in the hormonal balance of a woman.
- Disturbed work of internal organs. As a rule, the liver, kidneys, stomach.
- The formation of spots as a result of improper elimination of acne.
- Change in hormonal balance in general.
- Stressful conditions.
- Improperly selected cosmetics, the components of which can cause allergic manifestations.
Is it possible to permanently get rid of age spots
Facial pigmentation: causes and treatment are established with the help of qualified help, if the reasons are really serious. If spots appeared as a result of external factors, it is recommended to use ointments, creams or oils, which are widely represented. The main focus is on the quality of specialized cosmetics and the individual characteristics of the skin.
In addition to cosmetics, a number of cosmetic procedures are proposed to eliminate this problem. They have a permanent effect.
- chemical peeling;
- laser peeling;
- ultrasonic peeling.
Using skin lightening products
Pros and cons of skin lightening agents
Each specialized care product has certain advantages and disadvantages. To give an assessment, they need to be compared with something. In this case, the comparison will be carried out in parallel with home remedies and specialized procedures. The main characteristic of the bleaching agent is that it is effective, while the result is not immediately visible.
- Creams in comparison with specialized procedures are a more gentle way, there is no trauma to the deep layers of the skin.
- Practical to use, you can use everywhere.
- Cope with pigmentation completely, with parallel skin care.
components may have an additional effect on the elimination of wrinkles, the removal of irritation.
- Available, in comparison with specialized procedures.
Cons of using such bleaching agents:
- Expected result in at least a week.
- The course of use is about a month.
- Danger of hazardous constituents. Some toxic constituents can trigger allergic reactions or even damage.
- Home remedies are comparatively cheaper than industrial ones.
All industrial bleaching creams are divided into 3 groups:
- Contributing to blocking the production of melanin – since they affect melanocytes, their function is inhibited and blocking of reappearance occurs.
- With a brightening effect.
- With dual function: lightening and obstruction.
Treatment with the appearance of pigmentation on the face begins only after establishing the causes.
Among the wide variety of industrial, specialized products, the following popular creams are distinguished:
- Cream from the company Vichy – Vichy Idealia PRO . Combines efficiency and safety (absence of harmful components). The action is aimed at removing dark spots and cell production. The composition includes: Kombucha, water (thermal), acid (salicylic), adenosine. Suitable for irritated, sensitive, dry skin.
- Evinal – the action is aimed at all kinds of spots. It is allowed to use sunscreen. The composition includes: placenta, parsley, corn oil, calendula.
- Elure by Syneron Medical. The main component is Melanozyme. It eliminates the pigment in the skin layers. Available in 2 packs and provides for use in 2 stages: first, the affected areas are processed, and then the entire face, for the complete destruction of melanin.
- Achromin is produced by Alen Mak-Bulgaria company – its action is aimed at removing melanin from cells. Effective with freckles. Not recommended for use by pregnant women and owners of sensitive skin. Side effects are expected: it causes dryness, there may be rashes and redness. Do not use for acne, exclude use by children. Before use, consult a specialist cosmetologist.
- Clotrimazole is a universal remedy for eliminating pigmentation. Effective for inflammation. Relatively inexpensive cost and high efficiency of use. It is considered hypoallergenic, but an individual allergy to the components of the drug is possible. Not recommended for pregnant women.
- Radiance Neotone – cream with a light texture, especially suitable for sensitive skin. It can be used as a prophylactic in the summer. It has great protection from sunlight. With licorice root, glycolic and salicylic acids in the composition.
- Bielita Vitex actively eliminates pigmentation, is able to affect even dark spots. Fruit acids in the composition are able to eliminate exfoliated cells. It can be used as a prophylaxis. There are no harmful components in the composition.
Since the products are specialized, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the rules for using such cosmetics:
- Before use, even if the drug contains only harmless components, it is necessary to conduct a test for allergic reactions. Apply a certain amount to the inside of the hand and stand for a quarter of an hour. Use is permissible in the absence of any skin reactions.
- Application is provided in the fall, winter and spring, when the sun is less active.
- Apply a thin layer to cleansed skin.
- It is applied once or twice, in accordance with the instructions.
- Parallel use of home whitening products is allowed.
- Limit exposure to the sun and use additional protective equipment.
Before buying, you need to thoroughly study the proposed options, get advice and get acquainted with the composition of the cream.
- The basic rule is to choose based on the personal characteristics of the skin. The action of the components is aimed at whitening, if used improperly, unwanted side effects can occur.
- Consider age, size and degree of pigmentation.
- The use of creams without harmful components is recommended, mainly with a high content of natural ones, which soften chemical ones.
- If a quick result is promised, and the composition contains kojic acid or hydroquinone, you should refrain from buying. These toxic substances act quickly and harm the skin.
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Pigmentation on the face (the reasons and treatment are established by a specialist) can be eliminated with the help of a cosmetic procedure for clarification – laser peeling.
It is carried out in two variations, depending on the type of laser and its action:
- The first works on carbon dioxide – CO 2 laser peeling is profound. With certain settings, it is able to cut tissue;
- Erbium – the laser beam passes through erbium (a chemical element), acts on keratinized cells without deep penetration. The skin is not damaged when exposed.
There is a cold and hot laser resurfacing – another division into varieties:
- When cold – cells are removed
in layers, without heating the lower layers. By the type of simple exfoliation;
- When hot, in addition to the main function, rejuvenation occurs by stimulating the production of collagen. This method warms up the lower layers.
Pigmentation on the face with ultrasonic cleaning is carried out after establishing the cause using a special device that produces waves of certain frequencies, and they are safe. Treatment involves the removal of the upper layers of the skin. Repeated procedure recommended after 2 weeks.
It takes place in several stages:
- Treatment of the skin with water (mineral), which is designed to cleanse the skin.
- Processing apparatus that promotes the opening of pores and cleans them.
Superficial skin burn with acids: glycolic, fruit, trichloroacetic and salicylic. By the degree of its concentration, they are distinguished: superficial or deep.
When superficial, a weak concentration of fruit acid is used. Principle of action: removal of the upper layer of dead cells along with pigmentation. The main plus is a small degree of injury and painlessness. There is some burning sensation, and over time, peeling of the skin is observed.
The main rule after the procedure, in order to avoid the formation of new spots, is to exclude direct sunlight from direct sunlight.
Deep peeling is carried out using trichloroacetic or salicylic acid. This is a more traumatic method, but it helps to effectively get rid of spots and even small wrinkles, smooth the skin and even out complexion.
Before the procedure, an examination, selection of a peeling agent, the need for anesthesia are performed. It is necessary to choose the right type of peeling and post-peeling care.
Dermabrasion is a mechanical peeling in which deep grinding of the skin occurs. Very tough but effective procedure. Helps to get rid of defects forever. Several types differ, depending on the depth of exposure and the equipment used. The procedure is carried out only if there is no inflammation.
It is carried out in several stages:
- cleaning and highlighting of necessary areas with a marker;
- placement on sites of capacity with ice;
- grinding is carried out using the selected nozzle;
- freezing with a special spray to remove exfoliating layers;
- applying a bandage to stop bleeding (with deep grinding);
- recovery period lasts up to a month.
It contributes to the destruction of cells with a high content of the pigment melanin by exposing the skin to flashes of infrared rays of a special length. The spot, taking a wave of light, acquires a lighter shade and soon disappears completely. The method is painless: the spots disappear without damaging the skin. This method involves getting rid of pigmentation in several procedures.
Stages of carrying out:
- skin type, depth of lesion is considered. The duration of treatment, the type of radiation;
- establishing the absence of contraindications;
- during the procedure, glasses are put on the eyes to protect against burns;
- cleaning is carried out;
- applying anesthetic and gel with a cooling effect;
- with the help of the apparatus, pulses are processed, melanin is destroyed and separated by peeling;
- applying a sedative to remove redness to moisturize.
The principle of the method is the elimination of spots under the action of liquid nitrogen. Upon contact with the stain, surface cells are destroyed and, at the same time, recovery is stimulated. Since there is trauma to the skin, redness is observed for some time.
The following stages of the procedure are distinguished:
- cleansing areas;
- treatment with nitrogen, a spray or a stick (cotton);
- the site is inflated, decreases after a few days, peeling occurs.
Whitening is carried out by mechanical, laser and chemical peeling.
Traditional medicine methods
Pigmentation on the face (causes and treatment can be established in some cases independently) can be effectively eliminated by alternative methods. All modern methods of getting rid of this problem are widely used. But earlier, in the absence of such procedures, women resorted to improvised folk methods and coped with it quite effectively.
Effective remedies include:
- Lemon juice. Mix a spoonful of juice with liquid (10 tablespoons) and use for wiping. As a mask: mix milk and juice in equal parts with 20 g of yeast.
- Cucumber juice. Use regular wiping. Grate the cucumber, use the pulp after the juice as a mask. Can be cut into thin slices and put on the face. Such a tool not only brightens, but also moisturizes.
- Parsley. Brew parsley and wipe face daily. For a tonic effect, make ice cubes from the broth. For winter, prepare sprigs of parsley and, if necessary, make cosmetic ice.
- Melon. Compresses from melon skin.
- Egg shells. Grind into powder, mix with milk or kefir, use once a week as a scrub.
- Onion juice. After application, soak, rinse and apply sour cream for a while. Such manipulations are best done at night.
- Olive oil has a brightening effect principle and nourishes the skin.
- A decoction of rice. Strain the boiled rice, make ice cubes from the liquid and wipe twice.
- Bulgarian pepper. Use gruel as a mask.
Starch mixed with lemon juice, after application, withstand a qua
rter of an hour.
More complex masks in terms of their constituent components:
- Dry yeast, grapefruit juice, hydrogen peroxide 3%, mix lemon juice in equal parts.
- Grind parsley, cucumber, currant (red), dandelion (leaves), lemon, white clay, pomegranate using a combine (kitchen). After use, wipe your face with ice.
- Grind oatmeal, mix with strawberries, sour cream.
Before using masks, the skin should be clean, ideally steamed. After the procedures, wash with cold water or wipe the skin with ice to close the pores.
The removal of pigmentation on the face is sometimes a long, but worthwhile procedure. After the exact determination of the causes, you can immediately wait for the result of treatment and enjoy the effect.
But the further result will depend entirely on the degree of facial care.
Video on the topic: Pigmentation on the face. Reasons and treatment
Causes of age spots on the face, treatment:
Causes of unwanted pigmentation: