Skin is the mirror of our body, which requires careful care. Cosmetology cannot exist without knowledge of the epidermis, since they are extremely important for performing various procedures. Each layer performs certain functions, and to help a person solve a particular problem, you need to understand what you have to work with.
- What is the epidermis and what is it for
- Knowledge of the structure of the epidermis in cosmetology
- The structure of the epidermis
- Basal layer (sprout)
- Prickly layer
- Granular layer
- Shiny layer or cyclic layer
- Stratum corneum
- Epidermal cells
- Keratinization process
- Skin rejuvenation due to exposure to various layers of the epidermis
- The impact of chemical peels at the level of various layers of the epidermis
- Possibilities of mesotherapy in skin rejuvenation at the level of the epidermis layer
- Microdermabrasion – an effective procedure for updating the epidermis layer
- Video about the structure of the skin
What is the epidermis and what is it for
The epidermis is the outer layer of the skin, consisting of several layers and cells that perform certain functions. It includes the basal, spiky, granular, cyclic and horny layers. They are located above the dermis.
Constantly observed epidermal renewal. This process is associated with the conversion and migration of keratinocytes from the deeper layer of the skin to the upper. All this happens during differentiation. The epidermis contains elements of the immune system.
It performs certain functions, among which:
The most important function is considered protective, or barrier. The epidermis protects the body from the effects of negative environmental factors. It helps to eliminate dehydration. The sprout layer prevents the penetration of toxins into the body, protects the body from dehydration. Cells in this layer can also reflect ultraviolet radiation.
It easily penetrates and damages living cells, but the stratum corneum effectively reflects it. Ultraviolet is also absorbed by other skin cells – melanosones. They concentrate over the nuclei of keratinocytes and look like umbrellas. Melanosones protect not only nuclear DNA, but also the skin layer as a whole.
Knowledge of the structure of the epidermis in cosmetology
To ensure high-quality and proper skin care, you need to know the structure of the epidermis, its functions and significance. Before the procedure, you need to determine the type of skin, which can be combined, dry, oily, normal.
Each of these types requires appropriate care.
If this is not done, then various complications and negative reactions can occur, which will lead to undesirable consequences.
Layers of the epidermis of the human skin have their own characteristics and structure, and this knowledge is necessary, since each cosmetic procedure requires intervention at a certain level. If mistakes are made during the execution, it is possible to disrupt the functioning of a particular layer, to worsen the condition of the skin.
The structure of the epidermis
The epidermis consists of 5 layers. They can be seen with the naked eye. Each person tries to monitor his skin – use various moisturizers, conduct wellness procedures. But, not everyone knows that the epidermis is a layer consisting of dead keratinized cells.
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Basal layer (sprout)
The basal layer is the basis of the epidermis. The cells of this layer are densely located in relation to the dermis. The main function is protective. The sprout layer protects the body from ultraviolet radiation. When cells multiply at this level, a complete change of skin layers occurs. The basal layer has a full structure and is able to divide.
In young people, the process of exfoliating old cells occurs in a month, with age this period increases to almost 3 months. If skin damage is observed, the level of mitotic activity (the process of death) is reduced to several days. The epidermis is completely renewed, without any abnormalities at the genetic level.
The basal layer not only helps new cells to form, it also contains melanocytes. They produce melanin, which determines skin color. It is impossible to influence this process.
The epidermis layer is considered the second. It is called so because of cells with processes that resemble spikes that are tightly intertwined. Prickly keratinocytes are located in 10 or more rows. This layer of the human skin epidermis provides mechanical protection of the cell nucleus from various effects and damage.
The granular layer is represented by 1 or 2 rows of cells located parallel to the skin integument. It does not allow liquids to penetrate into the far layers. The formation of filagrin and keratolin is observed in this layer. After this, keratinization of the epithelium occurs. Promotes the formation of a plastic structure.
Shiny layer or cyclic layer
This layer exists, but it is impossible to consider it using light microscopy. It is characterized by shiny homogeneous stripes that are pink. The layer consists of 1 or 2 rows of flat type cells that do not have clear boundaries, without nuclei and organelles. The cyclic layer is localized in the area of the palms and feet.
This epidermis layer consists of dead cells. It is characterized by a protective function.
The thickness will depend on the degree of load received by one or another part of the body. Prevents the entry of pathogenic microflora into the body.
The layers of the epidermis of the human skin are diverse and consist of cells that differ in structure and functionality.
- Keratinocytes . They are considered the basis of the epidermis. They include keratin, which prevents the penetration of liquids. It also includes collagen and elastin, which make the skin supple and firm. Keratin in large quantities protects the epidermis, as a result, a person can have a variety of dead skin formations on his body, for example, corn. Keratinocytes constantly die and exfoliate. In the process of epithelial differentiation, cells are able to become larger, denser, keratinized with time.
- Melanocytes . Refers to pigment cells that contain dark pigment. They are localized in the first layer of the epidermis. They can also be found in the upper layer of the skin. They have long branching processes that pass between cells in the second layer, gradually moving towards the granular layer.
- Langerhans cells . Perform immune defense. They are localized in the germ layer. They differ in a tree form. Their formation occurs in the bone marrow. These cells can move from the epidermis to the dermis,al lymph nodes. In the process, an immune defense is created. They also perform endocrine function, which consists in the synthesis of biologically active substances. The number of these cells decreases as a result of the aging of the body, the influence of external factors, due to poisoning of the body by toxins and in chronic pathologies and deviations.
Merkel cells. They are localized in the first layer. These cells are involved in the f
ormation of sensitivity of the skin. A significant number are found in the epithelium at the fingertips.
- Stem cells . They are localized in the first layer. Relate to the precursors of cells of all organs and tissues. They have the ability to degenerate into different types of tissue.
Keratinization is a process that is characterized by the death and keratinization of cells in the epidermis. It protects the internal environment from the negative effects of external factors. Cells form in the first epidermal layer. As they age, they pass into the upper layers. After the first layer, they penetrate into the prickly, where changes occur with them.
Then these cells fall into the third layer, where their nucleus and organelles completely die, and the membrane becomes thicker. In the third layer, dying takes part filagrin, which contribute to the loss of water solubility in keratin, which leads to compaction. In the last layer, epidermal cells become flatter, tightly adjacent to each other.
There, filargin breaks down into amino acids. An important process that plays a special role in the protective function. Keratinization is a sequential process that affects every epidermal layer. As a result, substances are formed that protect the skin from the effects of negative environmental factors.
Skin rejuvenation due to exposure to various layers of the epidermis
The layers of the epidermis of the human skin perform a variety of functions, but the main one is protective. When performing cosmetic procedures, it is worth considering this in order to achieve a positive result.
It must be understood that all creams and other products act precisely in the upper layer of the skin.
Only injections, which not everyone is capable of, have a deep penetration. Yes, they will help to achieve the desired faster, but it is not always safe, since there are contraindications.
It is important to know the structure of the epidermis in order to correctly choose one or another anti-aging cream, mask or serum. The process of keritinization is the basis of cosmetic care. It is followed by procedures such as peeling, moisturizing, nutrition and rejuvenation.
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The impact of chemical peels at the level of various layers of the epidermis
Chemical peeling – damage to the upper epidermal layers with the help of various chemical agents that help in correcting appearance defects.
During the procedure, preparations with alpha hydroxy acids (ANA) and beta hydroxy acids (VNA) can be used. ANA include lactic, mandelic and glycolic acids. VNA includes salicylic acid.
|Types of peeling procedure||a brief description of|
|Surface||It is carried out using ANA. Recommended for increased skin pigmentation. It does not have a strong effect, so after the procedure the defect does not pass, but becomes less pronounced. The main purpose of such a peeling is to get rid of keratinized particles, to refresh skin color. The procedure is gentle. To achieve a noticeable result, a course is required. Surface peeling does not require anesthesia. The procedure is not traumatic. It is carried out at any age. It affects only the upper layers of the epidermis.|
|Middle||This peeling is based on the use of stronger acids, which reach the middle layers of the epidermis. The procedure significantly reduces the severity of pigmentation, helps smooth out scars, and eliminates small wrinkles. Preliminary preparation is required. This type of peeling completely removes the keratinous layer of the skin, as a result, after the procedure, a crust forms, which passes after 5-7 days. The recovery period can be more than 2-3 weeks. The procedure is recommended for patients aged 25 to 35 years.|
|Deep||It is considered a dangerous procedure. Based on the use of highly concentrated acids or phenol. The recovery period may last more than 6 months. If the procedure is performed incorrectly, scars or scars may form. Cope with medium and deep wrinkles. Damages all layers of the epidermis. This type of peeling is recommended for middle-aged patients. It is carried out in a hospital, anesthesia is required. It is currently used extremely rarely, as there are safer and more effective procedures.|
Preliminary preparation of the skin is required, the process of which is determined by the cosmetologist. She starts 2 weeks before peeling. The preparation is based on the use of AHA 5% cleansing gel with glycolic acid. The use of the gel is carried out gradually. First, it is used once a day, gradually increasing to 2.
If you refuse to prepare, then you will not be able to achieve a positive result from the procedure.
Before peeling, it is required to clean the skin from makeup. Degrease with special agents that normalize the acid balance. Then, the active substance is distributed over the face, after which it is removed.
The procedure ends with the treatment of the skin with a post-peeling acid neutralizing agent. A burning sensation may be present. Layers of the human skin epidermis during peeling are necessarily damaged, and how much will depend on the type of procedure that is selected by the cosmetologist, and on the patient’s age category, skin condition, and phototype.
Possibilities of mesotherapy in skin rejuvenation at the level of the epidermis layer
Mesotherapy is a cosmetology procedure that can solve many skin problems. It is based on the use of active substances that eliminat
e external imperfections from the inside. They are introduced into the area of the problem area. The composition of cocktails can include a variety of components, everything will depend on the lack.
Mesotherapy is used both in cosmetology and for the treatment of diseases of the back, joints, while eliminating pain in muscle tissue. A course of procedures is required to obtain the desired result. The disadvantage is severe pain. In many cases, local anesthesia in the form of a cream or gel is used. The effect of mesotherapy will be noticeable only after 6 months, not earlier.
Active substances affect all layers of the epidermis. It is strictly forbidden to carry out mesotherapy in the presence of an inflammatory process. To maintain the effect, the course is repeated after a year or earlier.
Microdermabrasion – an effective procedure for updating the epidermis layer
Microdermabrasion is a mechanical type peeling that is considered a safe and painless procedure. The use of anesthesia is not required, and the recovery period is minimal. This cosmetic method helps to get rid of dead skin and stimulates the formation of new cells.
Microdermabrasion is recommended for:
- Stimulation of the production of elastin and collagen.
- Elimination of scars after previous skin diseases and postoperative scars.
- Eliminate age-related pigmentation and freckles.
- Stretch Mark Removal.
- Elimination of fine wrinkles in the eyes and lips.
- Removal of acne scars.
- With age-related skin changes.
- With uneven color and relief of the face.
The procedure also has contraindications, which should always be considered before starting:
- an allergic reaction to one of the constituent components;
- vascular inflammation, which is expressed in the formation of a capillary network;
- hypersensitivity of the skin;
- active stage dermatosis.
This method is notable for its effectiveness and lack of damage. Microdermabrasion can be based on the use of peeling cream or a special apparatus. In the first case, it is necessary to use Abradermol cream, which has a slight abrasive effect. This procedure can be controlled without any problems.
The hardware procedure is crystalline and diamond. Microdermabrasion of the first type is based on the use of microcrystals of aluminum oxide, which are fed through the tip of the apparatus. As a result, exfoliation of dead skin, grinding, restoration of the relief is observed. This method is not so safe, but effective.
Diamond microdermabrasion is based on polishing the skin with the help of vacuum absorption and diamond nozzles.
This procedure has a milder effect. Before you start, you need to get rid of makeup. After the procedure, a mask is made, which is selected depending on the type of skin, and a cream is applied.
After microdermabrasion, scars, scars, stretch marks are eliminated, the depth of wrinkles decreases, pigmentation becomes less pronounced, the pores narrow, and an unpleasant oily sheen disappears.
During the recovery period, special care is required, which consists in following the recommendations:
- regular use of a moisturizer with vitamins;
- use of sunscreen or spray;
- refusal of a sunbed.
The number of procedures will depend on the severity of the problem and the characteristics of the skin. On average, at least 4 sessions are recommended. The epidermis is the outer layer of the skin that protects against the harmful effects of external factors.
If you know its structure, then you can achieve a noticeable positive result from cosmetic procedures. Skin is a mirror that shows what happens to the human body, so you should not ignore any changes with it.
Video about the structure of the skin
Functions and layers of human skin: