The habit of maintaining a healthy weight requires responsibility and knowledge of metabolic processes. A conscious person should understand how many calories and nutrients the body needs per day to be healthy. A table for calculating the daily caloric value and the ratio of BJU products will simplify this task.
- What are kilocalories and BZhU, their main tasks
- Healthy and unhealthy calories
- Norms for women, men and children
- Why keep a daily calorie intake
- Lower limits of norm
- Consequences of Inadequate and Excess Calorie Consumption
- Muffin-Geor Formula for Daily Calories
- Harris-Benedict Formula
- Ketch-McArdle Formula
- WHO formula
- Body Area Based Formula
- How many calories do you need to eat for weight loss or weight gain
- Weight loss rate
- Weight gain
- Tips from doctors and nutritionists on maintaining a balanced menu
- Video on the topic: how many kilocalories a person needs per day, table
What are kilocalories and BZhU, their main tasks
Kilocalories measure the amount of heat that is released from foods during digestion. One calorie is equal to 4.2 joules – a characteristic of the energy level. The body spends this component on maintenance of life activity.
One unit of heat gives the same amount of energy. Products differ in the ratio of BJU, and the digestion of each of these components takes a different amount of energy. Therefore, that part of the heat that the body loses during the breakdown of food is taken away from the initial calorie content.
Each element BZHU body spends in its own way:
- Carbohydrates give 4 kcal. Once in the metabolism, they are converted to glucose and raise the level of sugar in the blood, which gives the body energy to work. Most of this resource is extracted from food and consumed immediately. The body stores the remains in the form of fat.
- Proteins give 4 kcal and break down to amino acids, which act as a builder of tissues and muscles, and also deliver oxygen to the cells. The body creates some of the components of this substance on its own. The body does not stock up on protein and receives only from food, the remains are excreted naturally.
- Fats give 9 kcal , are used to protect organs, obtain energy and other body functions. The body is constantly stored in lipids and spends these reserves last.
How many kilocalories a person needs per day, a table with dietary volumes shows approximately, but does not take into account the energy value of food. In order for the energy received by the body to be spent correctly, it is worthwhile to adhere to the KBZhU.
Calorie content or balance BZHU: which is more important:
Healthy and unhealthy calories
Calories are not harmful or beneficial, as they are just a source of heat. This property is carried by energy carriers: fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
Each of these compounds differs in origin, and therefore affects the body specifically:
- Carbohydrates are divided into fast and slow. The former sharply raise blood sugar, which provokes the body to put off excess energy in fat reserves. The latter are digested for a long time due to the complex composition and are gradually consumed by the body. Refined foods belong to fast carbohydrates, and foods with a high fiber content belong to slow carbohydrates.
- Proteins are not harmful, however, their excess is harmful. Some foods containing amino acids contain harmful lipids and antibiotics. Not suitable for eating varieties of fatty meat. Vegetable protein has an inferior amino acid composition, so it is worth complementing the menu due to the complex of legumes and nuts.
- Fats are divided into saturated and unsaturated. The first view is only conditionally useful for the body, therefore it bears the role of an energy source that is consumed by the latter, and therefore is deposited in reserve. The body actively uses unsaturated fats to regulate the functioning of the brain, replenish hormones, the protective functions of the skin and other means.
The ratio of BJU is calculated individually for certain purposes. If the goal is to increase the percentage of muscle mass and reduce fat reserve, a menu is selected in which proteins occupy the main place, and fats are not consumed at one time with carbohydrates.
Norms for women, men and children
How many kilocalories a person needs per day, the table can show more clearly. It should be taken into account that physical activity requires replenishment of additional energy spent during training. In addition, more calories are expended in providing muscle in daily routine.
|Group of persons||Need to consume calories per day|
|Children 6 months – 3 years||800-1500|
|Children 3–11 years old||1500–2500|
|Girls and boys aged 14-17||2700–3100|
|Pregnant and lactating women||3200–3500|
|Athletes women and men||4000-5000|
This difference between certain groups of people is justified by different physical activity. In addition, pregnant and lactating girls need to increase their diet in order to additionally provide the child with the necessary compounds, as well as to replenish the resources spent on this.
The amount of calories in women is slightly less than in men. Age and working environment also affect the amount of energy expended:
|Women age in years / calorie norm||Men age in years / calorie norm|
|21–26||27-50||> 50||21–26||27-50||> 50|
The calorie rate is determined by many factors, as well as the ratio of BJU. To more accurately calculate them, you need to use one of the special formulas. And based on the results, you can subsequently adjust your calorie intake.
Do not miss the most popular article in the rubric:
Fashionable haircut for short hair. Photo, front and rear view.
Why keep a daily calorie intake
Limiting the amount of food is the main rule of losing weight people. However, most of those who seek to lose weight, after some time, return to their previous shape, while looking fuller.
The body perceives a strong reduction in calories as a regime of hunger, therefore, it begins to burn muscles and slow down metabolism.
When returning to the usual diet, the body quickly replenishes the lost resources and is stored in reserve fat in case of hunger. When calories are exceeded, the body also inevitably loses excess weight.
Therefore, the only stable state in which the body does not make fat reserves and provides all the functions it needs is to follow the daily caloric value and balance of BJU.
Lower limits of norm
How many kilocalories a person needs per day, the table can show without taking into account individual characteristics that affect metabolism. Having made the calculation using special formulas, you can find out your coefficient of daily calorie intake. 200 kilocalories should be added to the result, and then 400 should be taken away.
These values are the upper and lower limits of the norm. Another way to calculate these data is to subtract or add 10-15% of calories to the base metabolism.
The range within these numbers is called the calorie corridor. This means that changes in daily calories should not go beyond the normal range. Otherwise, the body will begin to slow down the metabolism and weight will cease to decrease, and energy will be extracted due to the destruction of muscle fibers.
Consequences of Inadequate and Excess Calorie Consumption
At first, insufficient or excess calorie intake may not be felt.
However, such a way of life systematically harms the body, which is why the accumulated habit can lead to such negative consequences:
- reduced immunity;
- eating disorders, for example, compulsive overeating;
- disorders in the gastrointestinal tract;
- disturbances in mental and physical development.
In addition to a lack of calories in the diet, their excess causes a lot of problems that lead to obesity and the accompanying diseases:
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- disorders in the musculoskeletal system.
It should be understood that the calorie ratio coefficient for one person can be overstated or underestimated for another. Only the amount of reserve fat can tell whether the diet is correctly selected.
Muffin-Geor Formula for Daily Calories
The number of calories that is consumed during the day is selected individually for each, because age, height and weight play a role here. To do this, in 2005, scientists Muffin and Geor jointly derived a formula that takes into account these factors. Another technique approved by the American Dietetic Association.
In addition, an indicator of regular physical activity is added to the formula, which adds accuracy to the resulting calorie volume.
The daily value can be calculated for women:
OOB = 9.9 * weight (pounds) + height (inch) * 6.3 – 4.9 * age – 161,
and for men:
OOB = 9.9 * weight (pounds) + height (inch) * 6.3 – 4.9 * age + 5.
Thus, a calculation for a woman with an age of 23 years, a body weight of 110 pounds, and a height of 5’4 foot can be obtained: 9.9 * 50 + 165 * 6.3 – 4.9 * 23 – 161 = 1256 kcal. Similarly, a man of 26 years old, weighing 154 pounds, height 5’9 foot will have a need for 1535 kcal.
In this case, it is necessary to take into account the component of physical activity. The resulting value is multiplied by the activity coefficient.
The minimum value for sedentary work is 1.2, and for heavy loads with training 2 times a day – 1.9. The level of physical activity in this range varies in increments of 0.1.
A common formula for computing was invented in 1991. However, the method is inferior in applicability to other methods. Against the background of other formulas, an insufficient number of individual characteristics are used here, which gives a strong calculation error – more than 5%. The method does not take into account the indicator of daily physical activity in the calculations.
The formula is as follows:
Female gender: 655 + (9.5 * weight in pounds) + (1.86 * height in inch) – (4.67 * age).
Male gender: 66.48 + (13.74 * weight in pounds) + (5 * height in inch) – (6.75 * age).
Thus, a woman with indicators of 110 pounds, 23 years, 5’4 foot will have to consume 1332 kcal. A man with initial data of 154 pounds, 26 years old, 5’9 foot needs 1703 kcal to remain in his weight.
This method does not take into account body weight, number of years and growth rate when calculating. The expression involves only an individual indicator of the percentage of body fat. The error in the calculations based on this coefficient is large.
However, accurate measurements of the fat content in the body along with the application of the result of the Harris-Benedict formula in the calculations will give an indicator with a minimum error.
The Ketch-MacArdle formula does not require complex calculations and looks like this:
- BM = 371 + 20.59 * a
The last variable means the percentage of body fat. It can be measured using special equipment that is present in hospitals and gyms.
Also, this indicator can be roughly calculated by dividing the weight in pounds by the height in foot squared:
- body mass index (% fat) = weight (pounds) / height (inch) 2 .
How many kilocalories a person needs per day, the data table for certain groups can predict with the same large error. However, multiplying the coefficient obtained from the Ketch – MacArdle formula by the Harris – Benedict calculation result will increase the measurement accuracy.
For women with parameters of 110 pounds, 5’4 foot and a diet of 1332 kcal, calculated according to the previous formula, the basic metabolism will be equal to:
BM = 1332 * (371 + 21.61 * (50 / 1.65 2 )) = 1021 kcal.
For men with a weight of 154 pounds, a height of 5’6 foot and a daily norm of 1703 kcal:
BM = 1703 * (371 + 21.61 * (70 / 1.70 2 ) = 1521 kcal.
This result is more accurate, however, the body weight without fat, calculated by the formula, is significantly inferior in error to measurements using special equipment.
Do not miss the most popular article in the rubric:
Fashionable haircut for medium hair. Photo, front and rear view.
The calorie formula from the World Health Organization (WHO) is based on the same principle as the Muffin-Geor method. However, here age is placed in the ranges and for each of them an individual calculation is carried out using the coefficient of physical activity (CFA).
How many kilocalories a person needs per day is determined using an additional table taking into account the degree of load, where 1 is low, 1.3 is medium, 1.5 is high physical activity.
|18-30 years old||(0062 * weight + 20359) * 240 * KA||18-30 years old||(0063 * weight + 2895) * 240 * KA|
|31-60 years old||(0034 * weight + 3539) * 240 * KA||31-60 years old||(0484 * weight + 3654) * 240 * KA|
|Over 60 years old||(0038 * weight + 2756) * 240 * KA||Over 60 years old||(0491 * weight + 2458) * 240 * KA|
A man with parameters of 27 years, 154 pounds and CFA – 1.3 according to the formula has a coefficient:
(0063 * 70 + 2895) * 240 * 1.3 = 2279 kcal.
Body Area Based Formula
Another name for this method of calculating calories is the Harris-Benedict formula. Using such calculations, you can get the result as close to reality as possible. The expression contains indicators of weight, height and age, and for women and men different initial numbers are used in the calculations.
The percentage of body fat does not appear in the calculations. Therefore, this method will not show the exact result to people who regularly engage in sports and have large muscle mass. In this case, the basic metabolic rate will be lower than real. For obese people, this value will be overstated.
For men, the daily calorie rate is calculated by the formula:
OOB = 66 + (13699 * weight in pounds) + (5 * height in inch) – (6809 * age in years).
And for women:
OOB = 65 + (9599 * weight in pounds) + (1799 * height in inch) – (4.8 * age in years).
The daily calorie coefficient for a man with indicators of 154 pounds, 5’6 foot, 27 years is equal to:
OOB = 66 + (13699 * 70) + (5 * 170) – (6809 * 27) = 1691 kcal.
For a woman with baseline data 23 years, weight 110 pounds, height 5’4 foot, this indicator is equal to:
OOB = 65 + (9599 * 50) + (5 * 165) – (6809 * 23) = 1213 kcal.
In addition, the result can be multiplied by an indicator of physical activity. A range is proposed for him, in which 1.2 is low mobility, 1729 is heavy physical labor.
How many calories do you need to eat for weight loss or weight gain
Significant exaggeration or understatement of volumes always harms the body. It makes the body destroy those resources that are necessary for a healthy life and accumulate those that interfere with this process.
For a healthy transformation, the maximum output for the range of caloric intake is 10-20%.
Changing your diet, you need to weigh yourself at the beginning and end of the week and evaluate the result. If the lost weight reaches a mark of more than 2 -3 pounds, it means that the body loses weight due to dehydration and destruction of muscle cells to a greater extent than fat.
Weight loss rate
Losing weight by 2-3% of the current weight per week by nutritionists is considered safe. With large losses of mass, the body will begin to destroy itself and get energy out of these substances. The largest plumb line is observed at the beginning of the diet, subsequently its loss slows down.
It is important to understand that supplementation with active physical activity can cause weight loss. This is due to the accumulation of fluid in the muscles, as well as their growth. In this case, you need to observe a visual decrease in volumes.
There is a difference between intentional weight gain and uncontrolled eating. In the first case, this process is systemic and is used both for the visual effect and the introductory step to the calorie counting technique. In these cases, muscle gain will be much slower.
With sharp deviations from the normal calories upward, the reserve fat will be deposited almost inst
However, with a gradual increase in the volume of the diet to its own norm in increments of 50 kcal, weekly weight gain will not be observed at all.
This is due to the fact that the body is gradually restructuring its work under a new diet. However, with a calorie deficit, a sharp transition to a new food system will lead to extra pounds.
Do not miss the most popular article in the rubric:
Fashionable bangs of the new season for medium, short, long hair. Photo.
Tips from doctors and nutritionists on maintaining a balanced menu
Specialists in medicine evaluate the method of counting calories as an integrated systematic approach to obtaining the desired weight. They recommend not to go beyond the boundaries of the calorie corridor, as well as support it by replacing the method of cooking.
In addition, junk food, which is used to calculate calories, should be replaced by its useful analogues, and the calorie intake in meals should be reduced by the end of the day.
Pregnant and lactating women should refrain from such a diet, as food restrictions can adversely affect their well-being. People with diabetes, hypertension and problems with the gastrointestinal tract need to enter such a diet only under the supervision of a doctor.
The main rule for following a calorie-based diet is to avoid large gaps between meals.
At first, such calculations may seem complicated, however, over time, the selection method can calculate the optimal amount of the diet. It must be remembered that without knowledge of how many kilocalories a person needs per day and the table of the optimal ratio of BJU products, it is impossible to maintain weight correctly. This method will also help improve health and appearance.
Video on the topic: how many kilocalories a person needs per day, table
How many kilocalories a person needs per day:
How many kilocalories per day for weight loss: