A biochemical blood test is a fairly accurate study, which allows you to evaluate the work of internal organs and body systems. However, this analysis has a lot of subtleties, for example, the norms of research indicators may vary depending on the age of women.
- What is a biochemical blood test
- Indications for analysis
- Blood sampling preparation
- Decryption of analysis results
- Decoding table for biochemical analysis of blood in adults
- Norms of biochemistry in women by age: table
- Normal pregnancy rates
- The micronutrient rate in women
- Biochemistry indicators
- Protein: causes of abnormalities
- Glucose: causes of low and high levels
- What is the level of slag
- Diagnosis of possible violations
- Video about the standards of biochemical blood analysis in women
What is a biochemical blood test
Blood is a unique substance in the human body to detect certain defects in the human body. It is present in all organs and tissues, therefore, it includes many different substances that are formed in the process of their work.
Biochemistry quite accurately helps to determine the presence and level of these substances and by comparing the data and fixed norms to find out about the state of the body and the causes of possible diseases. In some cases, this study is the last option your doctor has for confirming the illness.
In addition to diagnostic purposes, biochemical analysis is used in many specialized medicine to determine specific indicators. During the study, blood from the peripheral vein is used. As a rule, blood is taken from the veins located at the elbow joint. However, when access to this place is not possible, for example, during a fracture, any other place is suitable.
The place from which the sample will be taken is processed as in any other case, in which the surface of the epidermis (a disinfecting substance) is damaged. From 0,2 – 0,3 fluid ounce of blood are enough to get the results, which are collected in a special test tube.
Indications for analysis
As a rule, a biochemical blood test is prescribed to women by a doctor for diagnostic purposes, if there are violations of the norms in the work of certain organs , or the general condition of the patient. Also, the procedure is carried out to check the quality of the prescribed treatment for diseases already identified. Moreover, the list of necessary indicators is determined by the doctor individually for each case.
Indications for analysis can be problems with the following organs:
- biliary system;
- endocrine system;
- blood systems;
- Gastrointestinal tract;
- musculoskeletal system.
In conjunction with some other procedures, biochemistry allows you to identify the correct pathology of almost any organ.
Blood sampling preparation
To get the correct data, blood donation must be carried out, observing some important rules:
- It is necessary to carry out the procedure on an empty stomach, and fasting should be at least 8 hours, but not more than 1 hour. Therefore, the most favorable time for the study is from 8 to 11 in the morning. 1-2 days before the procedure, you must avoid junk food and any drinks except water.
- When taking any medications, you should check with your doctor whether it is necessary to stop the course of taking the drugs and the duration of abstinence.
- 24 hours before blood donation, any amount of alcohol consumption should be excluded, and at least 1 hour before taking, quit smoking.
- 72 hours before the study, you need to isolate yourself from stress (both emotional and physical). Already at the place of analysis, you should sit for a while in a calm state before entering the office.
- If necessary, re-study it is advisable to conduct it in the same institution.
Decryption of analysis results
Since the norm of a biochemical blood test in women differs significantly from the norm of men, then first of all the doctors determine the gender of the patient. The same thing happens with age.
This process is an analysis of the comparison of existing standards for certain indicators and the data that were obtained during the diagnosis. The analysis is carried out on a special form – a table containing all the indicators that are determined by the biochemical laboratory.
A ready-made table with the results is provided to the patient, of which he can find out the ratio of his indicators with the norm. The decryption process, basically, happens quite quickly: within 2 to 3 days. Also in the modern world, decryption can be done independently using special online platforms on the Internet.
If any indicators deviate from the norms, the doctor prescribes additional examinations to determine the most accurate diagnosis.
Decoding table for biochemical analysis of blood in adults
|Common protein||63-87 g / l|
|Protein Fractions: Albumin
globulins (? 1,? 2,?,?)
|35-45 g / l
21.2-34.9 g / l
|Creatinine||44-97 mmol per gallon – in women, 62-124 – in men|
|Urea||2.5-8.3 mmol / L|
|Uric acid||0.12-0.43 mmol / L in men, 0.24-0.54 mmol / L in women.|
|Total cholesterol||3.3-5.8 mmol / L|
|LDL||less than 3 mmol per l|
|HDL||greater than or equal to 1.2 mmol per gallon for women, 1 mmol per gallon for men|
|Glucose||3.5-6.2 mmol per gallon|
|Common bilirubin||8.49-20.58 mmol / L|
|Direct bilirubin||2.2-5.1 mmol / L|
|Triglycerides||less than 1.7 mmol per gallon|
|Aspartate aminotransferase (abbreviated AST)||alanine a
minotransferase – the norm in women and men – up to 42 units / l
|Alanine aminotransferase (abbreviated ALT)||up to 38 units / l|
|Gamma-glutamyltransferase (abbreviated GGT)||normal GGT indices are up to 33.5 U / l for men, up to 48.6 U / l for women.|
|Creatine kinase (abbreviated as QC)||up to 180 units / l|
|Alkaline phosphatase (abbreviated as alkaline phosphatase)||up to 260 units / l|
|?-amylase||up to 110 E per gallon|
|Potassium||3.35-5.35 mmol / L|
|Sodium||130-155 mmol / l|
Norms of biochemistry in women by age: table
|Substance||Indicators||Norm in women||Notes|
|Squirrels||Total protein||64-83 g / l||In children under 17 years: 47-73 g / l
Over 60 years old: 62-81 g / l
|Albumen||Z5-50 g / l||For women over 60: 34-38 g / l|
|C-reactive protein||Up to 0.5 mg / l|
|Myoglobin||1Z-76 mcg / l.|
|Ferritin||1Z-400 mcg / l||Children may have different indicators.|
|Enzymes||AlAT||Up to 31 units / l|
|AsAT||Up to 31 units / l||Children under 18 years old have different indicators|
|Alpha amylase||27-100 units / l|
|Alkaline phosphatase||Up to 240 units / l|
|Lipids||Triglycerides||35-40 years old – 0.45-1.99
40-45 years old – 0.51-2.16
45-50 years old – 0.52-2.42
50-55 years old – 0.59-2.63
55-60 years old – 0.62-2.96
60-65 years old – 0.63-2.70
|Total cholesterol||3-6 mmol / l|
|HDL cholesterol||0.8-2.2 mmol / L|
|Cholesterol – LDL||1.92-4.51 mmol / L|
|Carbohydrates||Glucose||3.88-5.83 mmol / L||For women 60+: up to 6, 38 mmol / l|
|Fructosamine||0-285 mmol / L|
|Pigments||Common bilirubin||3.4-17.1 mmol / L|
|Direct bilirubin||0-3.4 mmol / L|
|Nitrogen components||Creatinine||53-97 mmol / L|
|Uric acid||150–350 mmol / L||In children 120-320 micromol / l|
|Urea||2.2-6.7 mmol / L|
Normal pregnancy rates
Women in position are experiencing enormous changes in the body, so the norms of the biochemical analysis of blood in some categories differ from the norms of other patients. When carrying a child, some criteria change.
Changes to the Z trimester:
- increased globulin;
- urea reduction
- increased phosphatase.
Toward the end of pregnancy:
- decrease in creatine;
- slight decrease in potassium;
- lowering magnesium;
- reduced iron levels;
- albumin levels can be changed in both directions.
The remaining indicators in pregnant women should remain unchanged, which will indicate a positive pregnancy, as well as the health of the mother and baby.
The micronutrient rate in women
Each of the microelements is an important component of a woman’s body, contributing to its proper functioning. Therefore, they must be treated with due care.
The standard trace elements that can be seen using biochemistry include:
- Sodium. Promotes the absorption of calcium, is involved in the reaction of the skin to external stimuli. Deviations from the norm can be proved by the presence of diabetes, urinary tract problems, kidney or liver failure (1-4-4-14 mmol / l);
- Potassium. Responsible for the work of the heart. Inconsistency with fixed indicators may indicate problems with blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract organs, diabetes and cancerous tumors (3, 5-5, 3 mmol / l);
- Chlorine. Participates in the normalization of the pH of the circulatory system. Inconsistency with fixed indicators may indicate the inoperability of many organs, lack of fluid in the body, deviations of the hormonal background. (9Z-11Z mmol / l);
- Phosphorus. Promotes the normal functioning of various human tissues. (1.4Z-2.13 mmol / L up to 2 years; 1.4Z-1.78 mmol / L up to 1Z years; 0.87-1.4Z mmol / L less than 60 years; 0.9Z-1, Z2 mmol / l for the elderly);
- Magnesium. It contributes to the normalization of processes at the cellular level, is responsible for the reaction of the muscular coat to external stimuli. Inconsistency with fixed indicators may indicate diseases of the internal organs, as well as poor nutrition (0.66-1.0Z mmol / l);
- Iron. Responsible for the normal functioning of the digestive tract and normalization of metabolism (8.9-30.0 mmol / l in the elderly; 9-2 mmol / l up to 14 years old; 7-18 mmol / l up to 2 years);
- Calcium. He is responsible for the work of various internal systems, and also takes part in the formation of bones. Non-compliance with the norm can mean a lack of vitamins, ill-conceived nutrition, diseases of human organs and systems (2.1Z-2.6 mmol / l);
- Zinc (1Z-18 mmol / L);
- B9 (Z-17 ng / fluid ounce).
In some cases, indicators may deviate from the norm, for example, during pregnancy. Therefore, do not make premature conclusions yourself, but entrust this to a specialist.
- Total protein. A blood test for biochemistry can identify problems with metabolism and nutrition, the presence of cancerous tumors, and diseases of the vital organs in women with abnormalities in the total protein norm.
- Albumen. This protein occupies up to 63% of plasma and can tell about many diseases.
- Glycated hemoglobin. This protein is important for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment for it. The norm is 5.7%. If this indicator is reduced to 6, 3%, then there is a risk of developing this disease, a lower percentage indicates a clear presence of diabetes.
- Myoglobin. The high content and growth of this protein in the blood may indicate serious diseases of the heart muscle. Analysis for this component is considered mandatory for patients with suspected myocardial infarction.
- Rheumatoid factor. The presence in the analysis of even 1 unit of this protein indicates possible diseases, up to cancerous tumors.
- C-reactive protein. The function of this component is to improve the body’s defenses. A slight increase may be considered normal when using capsule contraceptives.
- Ferritin. The norm of the element in a biochemical analysis of blood is considered 1Z-400 mg / l in women of mature age. The increase and decrease in this protein is the result of a lack or excess of iron in the blood, which can lead to serious health problems.
- Glucose. The main task of this element is to saturate the body with energy. Deviation from these figures may be the result of the presence of diabetes mellitus, pancreatic cancer, or a reaction to some drugs.
- Fructosamine . This component combines protein and glucose.
- Alat. A liver enzyme involved in the work of amino acids. Deviations from the norms can mean problems with the heart and blood vessels, as well as liver diseases.
- Amylase. It is born in the glands of the saliva, is involved in the breakdown of carbohydrate compounds.
- Pancreatic amylase. Also of great importance in the breakdown of carbohydrates. The increased content of this element may indicate problems with the pancreas.
- AsAT. A large amount of this enzyme can be found in the blood with various liver problems.
- Gamma glutamyl transferase . This enzyme occurs in connection with the life of the pancreas and liver. An increased amount of it in the blood indicates excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as liver diseases.
- Creatine kinase. Increased concentration may indicate the presence of kidney failure, myocardial damage and systemic pathologies of connective tissue.
- Lactate The enzyme is a product of carbohydrate metabolism, indicates the lack / sufficiency of oxygen in the tissues. An increased concentration of the enzyme indicates the excessive use of certain drugs, as well as many diseases of the internal organs.
- Lactate dehydrogenase. Participates in the formation of the previous enzyme. Deviations from the norm can be in newborns and pregnant women, however this is considered normal. In other cases, an increase in the content of the enzyme in the blood can be caused by diseases of the liver and kidneys, and the blood supply system.
- Lipase. Participates in the process of splitting fats. Deviations can indicate various problems: from malnutrition, to diseases in the field of oncology.
- Alkaline phosphatase. Stimulates metabolic processes by phosphorus.
- Cholinesterase. It occupies an important place in ensuring the functioning of nerve and muscle tissues. Non-compliance with the norm can be caused by many serious diseases: cancerous tumors, liver pathology, diabetes, manic-depressive syndrome, etc.
Bilirubin is common . Responsible for staining the skin and mucous membranes. Includes:
- Bilirubin is direct, deviations of which may indicate problems with the biliary tract and liver.
- Indirect bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin, whose work can be seen when the bruise changes color.
- Triglycerides. This element enters the blood through the synthesis of carbohydrates from the liver, their food elements enter. Norms vary significantly depending on the gender and age of the patient, as well as in women in position. Deviations from the norms can be fixed due to diseases of the cardiovascular system, thyroid gland, liver, and also in the presence of diabetes.
- Total cholesterol. It is the value of the sum of “positive” and “negative” cholesterol.
- HDL cholesterol (“positive”) . Helps in determining predisposition to atherosclerosis, processes and removes fats from the body.
- LDL cholesterol (“negative”) . The function of this element is the spread of cholesterol in the body, which comes with food. An increase in it in the blood indicates the presence of problems.
- Creatinine. It is produced through the exchange of proteins, excreted in the urine from the body. A decrease in the substance in the blood is an indicator of nutrition problems, and an increase means a pathology of the kidneys, thyroid gland.
- Uric acid. It is born in the liver, the removal from the body is carried out in the same way as creatinine. An abnormal diet, alcohol abuse, kidney and liver diseases can lead to a deviation from the norm.
- Urea. Appears in the body as a result of the breakdown of ammonia. Non-compliance with the norm can be in pregnant women and people leading a vegetarian lifestyle, as well as a consequence of kidney and liver diseases.
Protein: causes of abnormalities
The first thing you need to know when analyzing deviations from the norm of the protein is that they can be of 3 types:
- Relative. Depend on the amount of water that circulates in the blood. The indicators can be affected by both a lack and an excess of fluid.
- Absolute. They are associated with a change in the rate of protein metabolism, which can be caused by pathological processes or physiological, such as pregnancy.
- Physiological. May be caused by any changes or loads on the body: pregnancy, lactation, hard work with “hands”, heavy eating with a high concentration of protein. This type of deviation is in no way associated with pathological processes in the body.
Deviations can be either downward or upward, which is due to various reasons.
Decrease in indicators of protein can be caused by the following cases:
- Parenchymal hepatitis;
- chronic bleeding;
- kidney diseases that cause protein loss during urination;
- malnutrition, insufficient intake of protein foods;
- problems with the metabolic process;
- various intoxications;
A decrease in protein that is not associated with the disease can occur in connection with pregnancy (the last trimester), the preparation of an athlete for competitions, a lying lifestyle.
Unlike a decrease in the amount of protein in the blood, its increase is in no way associated with physiological abnormalities . In case of increase of this indicator, the patient immediately needs an examination and supervision of the attending physician.
The causes of increased protein in the blood include:
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- heavy bleeding, etc.
Glucose: causes of low and high levels
A high concentration of glucose in human blood can be caused by problems:
- endocrine system;
- liver and kidney;
- hemorrhages in the brain or heart.
In the case of a decrease in glucose, the following reasons can be added:
- insulin overdose;
- poisoning with alcohol or chemical products;
- steroid use;
- hard physical work.
Do not miss the most popular article in the rubric:
Fashionable bangs of the new season for medium, short, long hair. Photo.
What is the level of slag
Slags, they are also products of nitrogen metabolism, are very toxic and their increase in the human body threatens with serious consequences. The increase in toxins caused can be various reasons, however, always some pathological process lies in them:
- serious kidney and liver disease;
- dystrophy and many other pathologies.
The reduction of toxins, as a rule, does not carry any serious causes and consequences, however, it also requires checking with a doctor, as it may turn out, for example, to be liver failure.
Diagnosis of possible violations
Using a blood test for biochemistry, you can diagnose many problems and pathologies in the human body, but a deviation from the norms, especially in women, does not always carry a dangerous omen. The same pregnancy can affect many indicators, which should not be considered something bad.
To confirm or refute a possible diagnosis, after decoding, the attending physician will prescribe additional studies, as well as advise which specialists should go and what should be changed in lifestyle and nutrition to restore normal biochemistry indicators.
Video about the standards of biochemical blood analysis in women
Decoding of a biochemical blood test: norms, tables:
Biochemical blood test for ALT, AST, ALAT in women and men: