- What is a keloid scar
- Predisposing factors
- Stages of development of the keloid scar
- The causes of the appearance of a keloid scar in different parts of the body
- Scars after blepharoplasty
- Scars after rhinoplasty
- Scars after mole removal
- Scars after mammoplasty
- Scars after biorevitalization
- Scars after piercing
- Scars after acne, acne
- Post Burn Scars
- Is it possible to prevent scar formation
- Independent Defect Management
- Medication for keloid scar
- Folk remedies
- Aloe vera
- Ointments and gels homemade
- Cosmetic creams
- Cosmetic and medical procedures for scar removal
- Pressure therapy
- Laser removal
- Radiation exposure to the scar
- X-ray therapy
- Video about myths in the treatment of keloid scars
What is a keloid scar
A keloid scar (or keloid) is a skin lesion that forms as a result of proliferation of connective tissue. It is formed after healing of the skin in places of burns and wounds. Typically, a keloid scar is smooth, dense and has clear boundaries.
With damage to the integument, fibroblast cells are activated, the function of which is to restore damaged tissues and synthesize collagen protein of the skin. If too many of these proteins are formed, then the fibers grow and a scar forms. If the wound was infected, then the keloid scar may be larger than the wound.
Some people have a tendency to form keloid scars – several such defects can be found on their body.
Also, the formation of a scar is facilitated by:
- suppuration of the wound;
- the presence of “lacerated” wounds;
- strong skin tension near the wound;
- hormonal failure in the body;
- reduced immunity;
- the presence of keloids in close relatives (genetic predisposition).
Stages of development of the keloid scar
There are 4 stages of keloid formation:
- Epithelialization – an epithelial layer is gradually formed at the wound site, after 7-9 days. it becomes denser and paler. After 2-3 weeks. the lesion site turns red and swells.
- Swelling – within 3-4 weeks. there is a compaction of the damaged area of the skin. Damaged skin takes on a red tint.
- Sealing – the damaged area becomes much denser. A bulge is noticeable on the skin.
- Softening – the scar turns pale and softens. When touched, pain may occur.
A fully formed keloid scar does not adversely affect the human body, but it causes severe moral discomfort and causes complexes, especially if it is located on the visible part of the body.
If a keloid has arisen in the area of the joint or facial muscles, then these parts of the body may be limited in movement.
The causes of the appearance of a keloid scar in different parts of the body
Depending on where the keloid scar is located, there are various reasons for its occurrence.
Scars after blepharoplasty
After surgery to change the shape of the eyelid – blepharoplasty, a scar forms through the entire surface of the upper eyelid and looks like a thin volume strip of a reddish hue. Such a scar is also not visible if a person keeps his eye open. In this case, a keloid scar is dangerous because it can interfere with the normal opening of the eye.
Scars after rhinoplasty
After rhinoplasty, scars form where the surgeon used a scalpel – most often near the nostrils or on the septum between them. Scars are almost invisible, but they may have a larger size and affect the area above the lip.
Scars after mole removal
After removing the mole, a pinkish-brown crust remains in any place that cannot be torn off. If a person does this, then an infection can get into the wound remaining after removal, and as a result a keloid scar will form.
A scar can also occur if deep layers of the skin are affected during the procedure. Trying to restore their integrity, fibroblasts will synthesize more collagen, which will form in the scar.
The safest and less traumatic way to remove a mole is cryodestruction. During the procedure, the formation on the skin is frozen, and it disappears by itself – only a small trace remains after it.
Scars after mammoplasty
Keloid scars after mammoplasty are a fairly common occurrence. They are also formed in the places of cuts – under the breast, near the nipples and halo. They greatly spoil the appearance of the breast and cause the woman moral discomfort.
Scars after biorevitalization
Biorevitalization is a procedure for introducing hyaluronic acid under the skin, which is responsible for updating the skin by activating the action of fibroblasts. And the increased activity of fibroblasts, in turn, leads to the formation of keloid scars. Biorevitalization is contraindicated in those who are prone to the appearance of keloid scars.
Scars after piercing
Scars after piercing are formed in places of punctures: near the navel, on the nose, near the lips. Scars are less common on the ears and tongue. They are most often eliminated by laser skin resurfacing or cryodestruction.
Scars after acne, acne
A keloid scar, which can be eliminated comprehensively with the help of drugs and physiotherapy, rarely occurs after acne. Stains and scars on the skin after acne are post-acne that appears if a person squeezes acne and carelessly cares for the skin. You can get rid of scars using chemical peels or laser resurfacing.
Post Burn Scars
Post-burn scars are formed as a result of any type of burns: thermal, chemical, electrical. The degree of burn affects the formation of the scar – if a burn is of the 1st degree (characterized only by redness), then with proper skin care, a scar with a probability of 99% will not appear.
With a burn of 2-4 degrees, when the skin begins to become covered with blisters and tear away, the likelihood of the formation of a keloid scar increases.
Is it possible to prevent scar formation
A keloid scar, which is very difficult to get rid of, can occur even for those who do not have a tendency to form scars.
But you can prevent this defect if you follow the rules:
- When removing a mole, scar, wart, select only a licensed clinic and an experienced doctor; after the procedures, never peel off the crusts from the places where the defects were removed and carefully care for the resulting wounds.
- Rinse and disinfect wounds and abrasions immediately and prevent suppuration.
- Do not abuse procedures such as biorevitalization; also do not get carried away with the introduction of hyaluronic acid into the lips in order to increase them.
- If there is a tendency to the appearance of keloid scars, then after receiving a burn or abrasion,
apply a silicone dressing or patch to the affected area to stop the growth of scar tissue.
Independent Defect Management
Keloid scar causes strong complexes, so many of its owners want to get rid of the defect. The treatment of keloids is complex.
Medication for keloid scar
Drug treatment includes:
Injections of corticosteroids (hormonal drugs) directly into the scar tissue. The procedures are performed with an interval of 4-6 weeks. The number of procedures is determined by the doctor (on average, 3-4 injections are administered per treatment course). Corticosteroids help reduce collagen production by fibroblasts. The safest drugs of this group are triamcinolone acetonide in a dosage of 10-40 mg / fluid ounce – most patients tolerate it well.
- Injection of interferon into the scar tissue in order to increase immunity. The drug is administered as follows: 2-3 weeks. every other day and then 1-2 times a week. within 3 months
- Enzyme preparations in the form of injections (Longidaza, Lidaza). Such agents break down hyaluronic acid and help stop the formation of scar tissue. The course of treatment is from 5 to 20 injections, depending on the size of the formation.
Treatment is selected individually, depending on age, size of the keloid scar and individual characteristics of the patient’s body.
Folk remedies are not able to completely eliminate the keloid scar, however, with their help, education can be made less noticeable.
The following cosmetic oils can be used to care for keloid scars:
Any of these oils (or a mixture thereof) must be rubbed several times a day into scar tissue for 2 weeks. Before use, you need to test for an allergic reaction – apply a drop of oil on the inside of the wrist and leave for 3-4 hours. If itching, redness, burning did not occur, then the oil can be used to treat keloid scar.
Lemon juice will help make the scar lighter and less noticeable. It is necessary to squeeze a little juice, moisten a cotton swab in it and wipe the scar well.
Next, wait until the juice is absorbed into the skin (2-3 minutes) and rinse the treated area with warm water. Repeat the procedure 3 times a day for 1.5-2 weeks until the scar tissue brightens.
Honey has anti-inflammatory and whitening properties and has proven itself in removing keloid scars. It helps to reduce the size of the defect and make it lighter. Honey should be rubbed into the skin affected by scar tissue for 5 minutes, and kept on the skin for an hour, rinse with water. The procedure is performed 1 time per day for 7 days.
Aloe vera has an anti-inflammatory property, which is very important in the early stages of scar tissue formation. If you regularly use compresses with aloe vera during this period, you can prevent excessive overgrowth of the scar and make it less noticeable.
As compresses, you can apply a piece of the plant with a slice to a sore spot and fix it with a bandage. Keep the compress for 1-1.5 hours, then remove and rinse the skin.
Ointments and gels homemade
As a home ointment, you can prepare onion ointment. Onion is recognized as an effective remedy against scars and keloids. Plant extract helps to reduce the severity of the scar and can be used to prevent the formation of scars and scars after operations or injuries.
To prepare the ointment, it is necessary to grind 1 onion in a blender and mix it with petroleum jelly, so that the ointment is obtained. The product is applied to the skin 2-3 times a day for 2 weeks.
Sophora ointment also helps – the fruits must be chopped and mixed with melted goose fat. Put the mixture on a slow fire and simmer for about 1 hour, then cool and place in a dark glass container. Apply the product on the skin 2-3 times a day for 1-2 months, until the scar becomes less noticeable. Store ointment in the refrigerator.
Cosmetic creams occupy an important position in the treatment of keloid scars – with their help, you can significantly reduce the severity of the scar and even completely eliminate it.
The most effective means of this category are:
|Name of the drug and form of release||Active substances||Act||Mode of application|
|Contractubex (gel and patch).||Allantoin, heparin, onion extract.||It has an anti-inflammatory effect, prevents the formation of blood clots, moisturizes the skin. It is a keratolytic, that is, exfoliates the upper layers of the skin and contributes to their renewal. It is proved that “Kontraktubeks” reduces the activity of fibroblasts.||Apply to the scar 2-3 times a day. The course of treatment is a month.
The patch is glued once a day and left for 6-12 hours. The course of treatment is 3 weeks.
|Fermencol (gel).||A complex of collagenolytic enzymes.||It has a selective effect on scar tissue. Helps reduce the severity of keloid scars.||Apply to scars 3 times a day for 1-1.5 months. Then take a break for 10-14 days. and repeat the treatment again.|
|Epitonex (cream).||Extracts: rosehip, sophora, onion; aloe, allantoin, beeswax.||Improves blood circulation in skin tissues, relieves inflammation; It has a softening, moisturizing and nourishing effect; improves skin regeneration.||Apply several times a day to scars or scars. The course of treatment is 3-4 weeks.|
|Kelofibrase (cream).||Urea, sodium heparin, camphor.||It softens and nourishes the skin, improves blood circulation and tissue regeneration, has a constricting effect in the formation of scars and scars. Camphor in the composition cools the skin and has an anti-inflammatory and moderate analgesic effect, improves blood circulation.||Apply with massa
ge movements to the scar 2-3 times a day. The course of treatment is 3-4 weeks.
Cosmetic and medical procedures for scar removal
Eliminating a keloid scar can be done quite quickly with the help of cosmetic and medical procedures, which are aimed at improving the condition of the skin and the complete removal of keloid.
A keloid scar, which can only be removed in a complex way, is formed due to poor blood circulation and a lack of oxygen in the tissues. It is possible to improve blood circulation with the help of microcurrents – this is electrophoresis, a physiotherapeutic procedure. A medicine (gel or ointment) is applied to the scar, a current-conducting sensor is applied, and left for 10-15 minutes.
Microcurrents help improve blood circulation and increase skin permeability, as a result of which the active substances of drugs penetrate the skin layers more easily and act on scar tissue in deeper layers. The course of treatment is from 10 to 14 days. It is carried out in a hospital.
Pressotherapy or squeezing is used to stop the growth of scar tissue. A helium-silicone patch is applied to a young scar (not older than 1 g.), Which must be worn from 9 to 12 months. around the clock. The bandage puts pressure on the scar and reliably fixes its borders, preventing their growth.
If a person has a tendency to form keloid scars, then such a dressing is applied to the wound almost immediately after healing of the tissues. The most effective means in the form of a patch is considered Kontraktubeks.
Laser resurfacing of the skin allows you to almost completely eliminate the scar in 1-2 procedures and give the skin a smooth and even look. During the procedure, a laser beam is sent to the scar tissue, which excites the tissue due to the high temperature. Later, they are rejected on their own, and in their place, smooth and healthy skin is formed.
Laser resurfacing has a minus – a keloid scar can recur. Therefore, laser treatment is usually accompanied by hormonal therapy to prevent new scars.
Radiation exposure to the scar
Radiation therapy consists in exposing pathological tissues to ionizing radiation or radiation. Most often, radiation therapy is used to destroy cancerous tumors in the body. During the procedure, a radiation beam is induced on the malignant cells, which destroys them.
To radiation exposure on the keloid scar, as well as during x-ray therapy, they resort very rarely. The risk of side effects is too high compared to other methods. Radiation and radiation therapy is used only in those cases when the medical, physiotherapeutic and surgical methods do not help or the scars constantly recur.
Cryotherapy – exposure to liquid nitrogen is also used to remove moles, scars, warts. Cold application of liquid nitrogen for 5-15 seconds is applied to the scar tissue. During this time, tissue necrosis occurs, they begin to be rejected. Later, healthy skin forms in their place. It takes 3 to 6 months to completely renew the skin on the treated area.
A keloid scar, which can be eliminated with the help of surgical intervention, is rarely treated in this way, since the probability of relapse is above 50%. They resort to surgery if the scar is very large and interferes with the movement of joints and muscles. In this case, the scar tissue is excised with a scalpel and sutured.
X-ray therapy has a large number of contraindications and side effects. It is not carried out in cancer patients, pregnant women and children, in patients with severe chronic diseases of various organ systems.
During X-ray therapy, the outer layer of the skin is irradiated with X-rays, resulting in the destruction of fibroblasts and old connective tissue cells. The procedure is performed once – after it, an antiseptic dressing is applied to the skin.
A keloid scar is not a dangerous, but very ugly defect. To get rid of it, it will take time, the main thing is to follow all the doctor’s recommendations and carefully care for the skin. This is especially true for people prone to scarring on the body.
Video about myths in the treatment of keloid scars
Answers from a plastic surgeon to questions about keloid scars: