Facial anatomy is the basic knowledge for cosmetologists. The skin is the same important organ, like the stomach or liver – it protects the body from all kinds of environmental influences. And it is with the right cosmetic effect on the skin that you can not only remain attractive and young for many years, but also be healthy – the better the condition of the skin, the stronger the immunity.
Anatomical features of the face
The face is a complex connection of muscles, blood vessels, nerves and veins. The internal structure, which is a rather complex and intricate mechanism.
In order to correctly carry out aesthetic and medical procedures, one should take into account the complex of interconnected features of the skull, the placement of facial muscles, as well as their relationship with the lymphatic system, vascular network and the structure of the facial nerves.
The human skull is the main protection for the facial muscles and nerves that are responsible for the facial movements of the face. In total, the skull holds 23 bones – that is, 8 paired and 7 unpaired. All of them are divided into 2 groups: facial and brain bones.
The facial bones are smaller paired bones:
- The upper jaw.
- Lower nasal concha.
Unpaired facial bones:
- Lower jaw.
This group affects the normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive organs. The brain bones consist of a pair of paired and unpaired bones.
They are located above the facial section, form some parts of the face, namely:
- Frontal tubercles.
- Eye sockets.
- Frontal area.
- The nasal cavity.
Paired bones are the parietal and temporal small bones, and unpaired bones are the frontal, occipital and sphenoid. All parts of the skull are interconnected by special “seams”.
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Muscles of the face
Facial anatomy for cosmetologists pays special attention to the muscle structure – the soft tissues, which contract during nervous excitation of a person.
According to myology, the science of muscles, it is possible to trace 1200 combinations of muscle work on the face that reflect different states of emotions and well-being. Such facial expressions are possible only with the joint reduction of several muscle groups – different combinations of their work form on the face certain emotions of bliss, pain, disgust, interest or complacency.
Typically, most facial muscles are structurally attached at one end to the bone and the other to the deep layer of the skin.
But on the face of a person there is a group of 4 deep muscles that are attached to the bone on both sides and provide chewing action:
- Lateral pterygoid.
Aesthetic cosmetology does not work with such deep muscles, but their condition, tone and activity directly affect the condition of the skin of the face and the shape of the oval.
The facial muscles are characterized by a thin form of the structure from the flat fleshy part. They are mostly found in the subcutaneous tissue of the face. With this contraction of the muscles, several folds are formed, and they are located perpendicular to the corresponding fibers.
The main reason why changes in human facial expressions occur is the sensory effect of the nervous system on muscle function, which manifests itself in the corresponding sequential reaction of muscles on the face.
The change in facial expression is due to the internal state and experiences of a person.
Such changes are possible with 16 major muscle groups:
|Occipital-frontal muscle||This muscle includes two paired smaller muscles. It stretches the skin of the forehead, holds the line of the eyebrows. Due to the loss of muscle tone, over time, the eyebrows begin to drop and create a sagging eyelid and age folds. With its active activity, transverse folds arise – between the eyebrows and on the forehead.|
|Frontal muscle (upper part)||Controls facial expressions in the area from the outer part of the forehead to the tip of the eyebrow. During her activity, her forehead wrinkles around the entire perimeter.|
|Superciliary muscle||The small muscle that is responsible for shrinking the forehead is located among the right and left frontal muscles, above the inner base of the eyebrows.
With her help, frowning, agitation, or pain is expressed. Over time, this muscle provokes the appearance of vertical wrinkles on the forehead.
|Eye muscle||Anatomically located around the perimeter of the eye. It consists of 3 parts that contract without affecting other parts of the muscle: the orbital, secular, and lacrimal parts. The loss of their elasticity provokes the appearance of “crow’s feet”.|
|Pyramidal muscle (leg of the frontal muscle)||This muscle is located at the tip of the nose. When it moves, the tip of the eyebrow stretches, because of which vertical folds are formed between them. Its other name is muscle of menace or arrogant.|
|Muscle above the upper lip||It allows you to wrinkle your nose, move your nostrils and the tips of your lips.|
|Wing muscle of the nose||With its reduction, the facial expression of the tip of the nose changes, the nostrils expand.|
|Nasal (transverse) muscle||It covers the entire upper base of the nose, with its activity there are facial wrinkles in the form of swallows near the lips. The nasal muscle also pulls the skin of the cheeks.|
|Lesser zygomatic muscle||The base of the muscle is in the upper part of the cheekbones, and stretches to the soft tissues in the corners of the lips. Lips react to her work, they can rise by 0’4 inch, and with this movement they create a nasolabial furrow.|
|Muscle or muscle of laughter||Its beginning is in the back of the zygomatic bone, and the end is in the
deep skin tissues near the mouth. When it moves, nasolabial folds occur. Which in turn put pressure on the cheeks, because of which they slightly bulge and rise. With this movement, the cheeks provoke the appearance of wrinkles near the eyes.
|Buccal muscle||When it is reduced, the cheeks are inflated. This is the “safest” muscle, it does not provoke the appearance of facial wrinkles.|
|Muscle lifting the corners of the mouth||Its base is located in the front of the upper jaw, under the eye, and this muscle ends in the deep tissues above the lip. Due to the fact that it is underdeveloped, it is possible to notice its reduction only during severe aggression.|
|Muscle around the labial line||A flat muscle has the shape of a circle, which consists of two semicircles: the upper and lower. They connect near the lips. These muscles begin to move when eating or talking.|
|Muscle of the corner of the mouth (triangular)||It is located near the chin muscle, its beginning is attached to the lower jaw, and the end is near the skin near the corners of the lips. Its contraction strongly affects facial expressions – the corners of the lips lower over time and distort the line of the lips.|
|Chin muscle or bundle of muscle fibers||Located deep under the skin of the chin. During its contraction, the lower lip rises due to which there are tubercles on the chin.|
|Subcutaneous muscle of the neck||Refers to facial muscles of the facial group – when this muscle moves, then almost all the muscles on the face react.|
The golden rule of all cosmetic procedures is to observe massage lines.
This ensures the tone and elasticity of the muscles that support the facial frame, guarantee youthful skin. Beauticians recommend adhering to the scheme of massage lines, since they are areas that are least susceptible to stretching of skin tissues.
If you regularly maintain the tone of the muscles of the face and gently, according to the corresponding massage lines, do massage, then you can tighten the shape and create a more expressive outline of the features of the oval.
All muscles, with their contraction, change facial features, expresses the internal state of a person. Since each muscle is associated with a certain state of mind, which is displayed on the face as a change in its shape, a corresponding facial expression arises, as a result of which wrinkles and folds appear over time.
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Facial anatomy for cosmetologists focuses on the important role of the normal functioning of the lymphatic system on the skin condition.
This system is a very dense capillary network, which is present in all organs and tissues of the body. Violation of the lymphatic system often affects the condition of the skin of the body – it loses its beautiful color, elasticity and velvety. The loss of these qualities in connection with the problems of lymphatic flow is doubly noticeable in the condition of the skin of the face.
The lymphatic system refers to the vascular system of the body. Under its influence, the lymph moves in the body, a clear fluid that, like blood, circulates through the human body.
But the lymphatic system does not have a pump, the function of which in the circulatory system is performed by the heart, and therefore the movement of lymph occurs very slowly – towards the large veins, at a speed of 0/32 inch / s . Therefore, it is always worth activating her work by mechanical action – massages, baths and cosmetic procedures – such manipulations will accelerate the work of the glands.
This system cleanses the body.
Important functions of the lymphatic system are:
- The distribution of fluid in the body.
- Transportation of nutrients from tissues.
- Protecting the body from bacteria, supporting immunity.
It consists of:
- Tonsils, thymus.
In the human skull, the lymphatic system has 7 groups of nodes:
- Behind the ear.
- Submandibular, located in the triangle of the chin.
Therefore, if the lymphatic vessels are clogged, and the system is broken, a lot of diseases occur on the skin, which can manifest in the form of acne, boils, and other rashes.
If you regularly conduct lymphatic drainage procedures, then these manipulations will well affect the metabolic processes in the tissues of the body. So, for example, you can reduce the swelling of the face, improve its contours and elasticity, normalize the tone of the facial muscles with regular massage. It is very important for a cosmetologist to know the directions of lymph flow on the face.
Since this is a complex grid of capillaries, the flow of lymph has several directions:
A) The lymph that flows through the tissues of the face gets here with the help of superficial vessels. Lymphatic flow corresponds to the blood veins.
Superficial lymphatic vessels are grouped into anterior and posterior:
- The posterior vessels supply lymph to the back of the head. There they pass into another group of vessels – the occipital.
- The anterior vessels are located simultaneously from the forehead, eyelid, crown of the head and temples. These vessels are connected with nodes near the ears, through which the lymph continues to move through the vessels down the neck.
B) From the eyelids, from the nose, cheeks and lips, the lymphatic network begins, its movement
is partially directed towards the submandibular triangle, submandibular nodes are located there. Another part of these vessels interrupts their circulation in the buccal nodes.
C ) The submental lymph nodes, which are located under the hyoid bone, are supplied with lymph from the vessels near the lips and chin.
D) Deep vessels from the hard and soft palate direct their lymph flow to the deep nodes of the parotid gland.
Skin on the face
Facial skin performs a protective function of the body from the external environment. In order for this protection to work in the best possible way, cosmetologists do their best to maintain the normal condition of the skin of the face, because sagging, wrinkles, rashes or dryness are not only ugly aesthetically pleasing, but also signs of impaired motor metabolism, or malfunctioning of skin tissues.
Facial anatomy for cosmetologists describes in detail the structure of the skin of the face, which consists of many cells, and their healthy state affects the appearance of a person.
The vital activity of cells is very similar to the life of all creatures – they absorb oxygen, feed, and have the ability to multiply. Although cells are the smallest living units, their composition includes a large number of organoids and elements that ensure the normal life cycle of each cell, and, accordingly, its owner:
- Ribosomes provide protein synthesis in the cell.
- The centrosome is involved in the regeneration of nutrients.
- Lysosomes are responsible for the metabolism and absorption of nutrients.
- Cytoplasm – retains the activity of all useful substances in the cell, except the nucleus.
- Microvilli are responsible for transporting substances from the cell through the membrane.
- Kernel – saves information about hereditary traits.
The epidermis is the first top layer of the skin of the face, serves as the main barrier of protection, is responsible for getting a tan under the influence of sunlight. Almost all cosmetic procedures are aimed precisely at maintaining the elasticity and tone of this particular layer of skin. The epidermis in its structure has several layers of cells – the lower, prickly, granular, flattering and horny.
The last layer of the skin, the horny one, is the uppermost, and consists of dozens of corneocytes – the cells that are most mature on the face, and therefore any metabolic processes stop in them. These cells are already old, and therefore contain a small amount of water, keratin and do not have nuclei.
Their main function is to create a protective barrier against external factors for facial skin. Usually, within 28 days, the old cells are exfoliated, and new ones grow in their place – here there is a constant process of the appearance of new cells and exfoliation of old ones. At this level, most mechanical and chemical peels are affected. The second layer of facial skin is the dermis.
It consists of two levels:
- Mesh layer – the level at which the mesh of the lymphatic and blood vessels, hair follicles, sebaceous glands and all fibers are located – they are responsible for the smoothness of the skin.
- The papillary layer concentrates the nerve endings, outgrowths and capillaries.
You can do any procedures on this layer of the skin with the help of deeply drowning agents with active compounds. Most cosmetics are surface-acting products, so only a special education will help you choose the composition of products that will penetrate the epidermis to the dermis.
Derma is responsible for the production of elastin and collagen in the skin cells. Therefore, when deep wrinkles appear, there is an immediate need to act on this layer of the skin, to ensure its elasticity, to strengthen.
The third, deepest layer – subcutaneous fat, is responsible for the storage of nutrients , which directly affect the condition of the skin. This layer of skin consists of many nerve and blood vessels, as well as fat accumulations. The need to act on this layer of the skin occurs with vitamin deficiency, when the face loses its healthy color.
Vascular and nervous tissue of the face
Facial anatomy necessarily teaches the location of the vascular network on the human face – small venous ducts that supply facial tissues with important nutrients. For cosmetologists, the problem of blood vessels, or rosacea, is the most common complaint in which women turn to aesthetic medicine for help.
Cuperosis is a genetic predisposition of almost every person to the manifestation of redness and unevenness on the skin of the face. But for everyone, this property of the skin has different forms, and can be more or less noticeable.
The first signs of “stars”, “streaks” can appear even in childhood, and only competent treatment and maintaining healthy vessels can save from aggravation of the problem. If a girl has such a predisposition, then there is a chance that the rosacea network after 30 years will become very noticeable.
Treatment of rosacea of the skin of the face requires a systematic approach – you need to regularly add aromatic oils to your daily care – this will strengthen the walls of blood vessels and prevent their potential damage, for example, during stressful situations.
If the problem of rosacea already has a more pronounced condition, then the treatment procedure requires the use of hardware cosmetology:
- Photorejuvenation is the most popular method because it has no age restrictions. This procedure occurs under the influence of impulses, increases the regeneration of the facial skin, strengthens it. Subsequently, this makes the vascular network on the face invisible.
- Mesotherapy – the procedure provides the supply of skin cells with a concentrated complex of beneficial substances, due to which small defects, such as rosacea, disappear.
- Electrocoagulation is a procedure for removing large asterisks using electric current.
- The laser procedure will help remove the pronounced vascular network.
Ozone therapy is carried out only at the advanced stage of rosacea – during the procedure, damaged capillaries are removed under the influence of ozo
ne with a microneedle.
An important knowledge in aesthetic cosmetology is also the structure of the nervous tissue – ectodermal formation of nerve cells, neurons. Its main task is the excitability and conduction of nerve receptors and impulses from a specific organ to the central nervous system. They form a network of nerve nodes that perceive any irritation in contact with them.
If the vascular or nervous system is damaged during the procedure, you can violate the symmetry of the face or provoke pinching of the muscles or nerve.
Knowing the location of the vascular and neural networks on the face is a very important skill for a cosmetologist – when performing any injection method, it is necessary to clearly understand where the ruts of large vessels and nerve tissues pass in order to avoid further dangerous manipulations in these areas.
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One of the important aspects of facial anatomy is the structure of the facial nerves – an unsuccessful procedure can cause a certain form of deformation or asymmetry of the face after the procedure. Together with the muscles, the facial nerves are responsible for facial expressions, and often it is a nerve disease that can provoke facial distortion.
Facial anatomy for cosmetologists describes the structure of the facial nerve as one of the most difficult topics to study, because its scheme is very confused – the facial nerve is 7 out of 12 cranial nerves that affects the activity of the facial muscles of the face.
Its complex topography is explained not only by the extension of this nerve through the front channel from the temporal bone, but also by the constant complication of its scheme due to the constant processes in other directions:
- The nerve itself consists of fibers that extend from several nuclei: motor fibers, sensory fibers, and secretory fibers. Then it penetrates the opening of the ear canal.
- From the parotid gland, 4 branches of nerves begin: the posterior ear nerve, the awl-sublingual, the biliary tract and the lingual.
- 5 more branches depart from the parotid salivary gland: temporal, zygomatic, cheek branches, marginal branch of the lower jaw and cervical.
Anatomy of the facial nerve is an intricate system of small channels of the face that send signaling reactions to certain parts of the head or neck. The facial nerve is mainly responsible for the motor function of the muscles in the face.
Knowing the functions of each branch of this nerve is very important for cosmetologists – this is the only way to determine the main problem of violation of sensitivity and facial expressions, and determine the subsequent treatment tactics.
Video about the structure of the face
Anatomy of the muscles of the face: