Almost 80% of young people and 10% of adults suffer from acne on their faces. The causes of acne in each age category are different, respectively, and treatment is selected individually.
- Causes of Acne
- Varieties of Acne
- Causes of rash in adolescents
- Causes of Acne in Adult Women
- Causes of Acne in Adult Men
- Types and stages of acne
- Teen Acne Treatment
- Acne treatment in adult women
- Acne treatment in adult men
- Acne treatment in children
- Acne treatment in pregnant women
- Anti Acne Medications
- Benzoyl Peroxide Acne
- Acne Vitamin A Drugs
- Azelaic acid from acne
- Acne Salicylic Acid
- Acne antibiotics
- Acne Differin
- Chlorhexedine for Blackheads
- Acne pills
- Folk remedies against acne
- Blackhead Masks
- Blackhead lotions
- Acne Water Baths
- Acne cosmetic treatments
- Nutrition Against Acne
- How to remove acne marks
- Acne Prevention
- Dermatologist Tips
- Recommendations of cosmetologists
- Video about acne on the face. Reasons and treatment
Causes of Acne
Due to inflammatory processes in the sebaceous glands of the skin, there is a blockage of the channels through which the fat enters the surface of the skin. This is the main cause of acne. The bacteria that exist on the skin cannot cope with the disposal of a large flow of sebum.
Microorganisms begin to multiply and enter the sebaceous canal, which is followed by a reaction of the immune system. As a result of the destruction of organisms of virulent microflora, pus and redness are formed.
The main causes of acne:
- Hormonal background failure;
- Immune system disorders
- Gastrointestinal diseases;
- Humidity, sun and heat.
- Improper nutrition.
Varieties of Acne
In medicine, acne is distinguished of the following types:
- Acne vulgaris. They usually affect adolescents under 20 years of age. Then they disappear. In adults, this type of rash appears in connection with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, pituitary disorders.
- In appearance, these are red purulent nodules. They also arise due to parasites under the skin, improper facial care, hormonal failure, genetic predisposition and unhealthy diet;
- Whiteheads (milium). This is sebum clogged in the pore. It does not come in contact with air, so these formations have a white or slightly yellowish color. Appear as a result of hyperactivity of the sebaceous glands. The main localization is cheeks, temples, nose. Harmful food and an excess of sunlight, climatic conditions, improper hygienic facial care are the main prerequisites for the occurrence of milia;
- Rosacea (Rosacea). These are red purulent nodules that appear due to the expansion of blood vessels. More often they suffer from women after 30 years. Alcohol, smoking, excessive exposure to the sun or hypothermia, stressful situations can cause them to appear;
- Blackheads (comedones). This is a rash without inflammation in the form of small black dots that are clogged with sebaceous glands, covered with a cork of dirt and dust. Carbohydrate-containing foods, thyroid and ovarian problems are the main reasons for their spread. Comedones are removed either at home alone or in specialized salons with regular facial cleansing;
- Medicinal acne (steroid). These are small pustules of red color that cause severe itching and burning. Appear as a result of taking specific drugs. These are glucocorticodes, anabolics and male hormones;
- Subcutaneous acne. These are dense nodules filled with pus. Such acne is very painful. They can not be squeezed out on their own, since there is a great risk of severe skin damage. The reasons for their occurrence are weak immunity, gastrointestinal tract disorders, poor nutrition, excessive sweating, chronic diseases and a genetic predisposition;
- Conglobate acne. They are formed due to inflammatory processes in the subcutaneous fatty tissue and have the appearance of spherical blue-purple acne. They tend to merge with each other, forming groups of inflamed cysts. Exposed to them more often men. The cause of the appearance can be diabetes, infectious diseases, smoking, stress, excess bromine and iodine in food.
Causes of rash in adolescents
During the puberty, global changes occur in the young organism. This is especially true of the endocrine system, which is responsible for hormones.
- Dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sharply increase during puberty, which gives an impetus to the active production of sebum. Against this background, microbes multiply, provoking the appearance of acne;
- Stress. Identical problems arise in emotional disorders;
- Improper nutrition. Due to harmful food cravings, a huge amount of slag accumulates, which are then sought and found out;
- Non-observance of hygiene rules;
- Vitamin deficiency;
- The use of alcohol-containing products that greatly dry the skin. Cracks appear on it, where microbes and bacteria get.
Owing to these reasons, acne appears on the face. The causes and treatment of acne are determined by specialists in cosmetology and medicine, which will help both cure them and avoid possible scars. This is especially true for adolescents.
Causes of Acne in Adult Women
According to statistics, every 5 women under 50 suffers from acne.
The initiators of this problem are:
- Hormonal disbalance. For example, when you cancel taking contraceptives, when the body, accustomed to a certain dose of hormones, loses it;
- The menstrual cycle, menopause and the first trimester of pregnancy also become a reason for a rash of acne;
- Poor quality cosmetics or containing isopropyls of myristate and palmitate;
- Allergy to foods, cosmetics or medicines;
- Increased levels of male hormones;
- Stressful situations;
- Gynecological disorders. For example, hirsutism or polycystic ovary;
- Demodex is a skin mite. Inhabits hair follicles;
- Gastrointestinal Disorders;
Causes of Acne in Adult Men
Men are less susceptible to this disease, acne in them appears in adolescence and at an older age.
And although the hormonal background has already stabilized, other factors serve as the appearance of the rash:
- The use of anabolic steroids, which are often abused by bodybuilders and athletes. Such acne is difficult to treat. But it can disappear itself, as soon as the reception of drugs stops;
- When shaving, men are often cut, which becomes the reason for the development of acne. Since bacteria causing inflammation get into wounds and cuts;
- Genetic predisposition;
- Poor sleep and nutrition;
- Smoking and alcohol.
Types and stages of acne
Acne on the face is divided into 4 types and has 4 stages of development. The reasons can not always be accurately identified, but treatment must be started on time, as this will avoid serious consequences.
- Papules – small dense vesicles rising above the epidermis;
- Pustules are pimples filled with pus;
- Cyst – a painful tubercle over a bluish-red skin;
- The nodes are oversized pimples. Inflammation g
oes deeper than in the early stages. Scars are left behind.
- Pore blockage. Dirt, dust, and germs adhere to excess sebum. All this falls into the pores, forming a few open and closed comedones;
- Rash development. It is characterized by numerous comedones and papules with inflammatory signs. Purulent pastules spread;
- Intensified inflammatory process. The situation is aggravated by the appearance of nodules. Acne and blackheads merge. Pain sensation worse when pressed;
- Severe stage . On the skin of the face all kinds of blackheads. Boils form. The skin is hyperemic. Papules and comedones increase in size.
Teen Acne Treatment
If a teenager suffers from acne, you should not wait until the “dangerous” age has passed so that such a serious emotional problem as deterioration of appearance does not complicate the course of the disease. A dermatologist can refer a teenager to a nutritionist. It will indicate a line of foods that should be excluded or added to food.
Depending on the stage of the disease, skin cleansing preparations are prescribed. Ointments, lotions and creams that are combined with antibiotics. External preparations are used locally, as they dry healthy skin.
Also, the doctor can apply disincrustation when the fat core of the eel is removed using current. In severe cases, ultrasound is recommended . It painlessly opens the sebaceous ducts, relieves excess fat and dead cells.
Acne treatment in adult women
The first step is a trip to the clinic, where it is possible to be examined by different doctors. This is a gynecologist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, etc. Blood, urine, ultrasound of the thyroid gland, ovaries and uterus are being analyzed. Also a biochemical blood test. For more accurate test results, it is necessary to take them early in the morning in the first week of the cycle.
Further, depending on the reasons, appropriate treatment is prescribed. In case of gastrointestinal tract disorders, antibiotics and prebiotics are prescribed to restore the intestinal microflora. If the problems are in the tonsils, then the ENT prescribes antibacterial drugs.
In extreme cases, tonsillectomy.
- Therapeutic drugs. A dermatologist prescribes topical medicines – creams, ointments, lotions.
- Peeling, face cleansing, ozone therapy and mesotherapy will also help get rid of the rash.
- Effectively fight acne retinoids. These are preparations of the vitamin A group. However, they should be taken only as prescribed by the doctor in the recommended doses. They affect the condition of the liver and joints. May cause headache. Cannot be taken when planning a pregnancy.
- Ultrasound. After it, the skin is rejuvenated, cleansed and tones.
- Effective with acne and folk remedies. Masks made from natural ingredients will not only help get rid of acne on the face, but will also provide general treatment for the entire body, regardless of the causes of the rash.
Acne treatment in adult men
Similar methods are suitable for men. Hormonal drugs are prescribed. Those who suffer from acne due to taking steroids, just stop taking them.
If folliculitis has developed due to shaving, then it is necessary to change the razor to an electric machine. It is treated with salicylic or glycolic acid to cleanse the pores, in conjunction with retinoids. With a completely advanced stage, corticosteroids are prescribed. They are introduced into the focus of inflammation.
Acne treatment in children
When an acne on a face appears in a small child, it is difficult to identify the true causes. Accordingly, treatment is limited to preventive actions.
- Daily bathing with baby soap. If you bathe your baby after a walk (to avoid excessive sweating) – do not use detergents;
- Do not lubricate the rash with creams on a greasy or alcohol-based basis;
- Mom should not be nervous during breastfeeding.
Preschoolers need to balance nutrition. Wipe your skin once a day with 3% salicylic alcohol solution. As directed by a doctor, use antibacterial creams or ointments with antibiotics. You can not use antiseptics.
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Acne treatment in pregnant women
Pregnant women are recommended:
- Fruit peels or tinctures on herbs;
- Clay masks;
- Safe cosmetics;
- Proper nutrition;
- Gentle and regular facial cleansing.
Anti Acne Medications
Preparations for external use:
- Ointments and creams – gently affect and do not dry the skin much;
- Gels, solutions, lotions – quickly absorbed, penetrating deep into the layers of the skin;
- Antibiotics – are used with a running inflammatory process;
- Retinoids are potent drugs. They have many side effects. They are taken to restore intestinal microflora. Take under strict medical supervision. Strongly dry the skin;
- Hormonal drugs – reduce the activity of androgens;
- Sorbents are cleaning products. Collect toxins and remove them from the body.
Benzoyl Peroxide Acne
The drug with antibacterial and anti-comedone properties. Removing inflammatory processes, exfoliates the skin, which contributes to its recovery. It is part of creams, lotions and ointments.
Application: apply point 2 times a day.
Side effects: dry skin, peeling, swelling.
Acne Vitamin A Drugs
Vitamin A or retinol is an antioxidant. It controls the release of sebum, and promotes the regeneration of the skin. Contained in butter, cream and egg yolks. Also in red, orange and green fruits, in leaves. It is used with fats.
Application: point to damaged areas, as part of a face mask, injection. Side effects: dry skin, sensitivity to sunlight, conjunctivitis, headache.
Azelaic acid from acne
Another name is carboxylic acid.
- Strengthens the epidermis;
- Saturates with oxygen;
Included in creams:
Application: applied to damaged areas. Side effects: burning and redness is possible.
Acne Salicylic Acid
Application: to wipe face skin with solution.
Side effects: dries the skin.
Neutralize bacteria. With inflammation, the mobility of neutrophils is reduced.
External: creams, ointments, lotions, chatters. Internal : injections and pills.
Apply in severe stages or if previous medications did not help.
External antibiotics are used with local treatment. Affect affected areas.
Internal antibiotics affect the entire body. Often negatively affect the work of the digestive tract. Therefore, they are replaced by intravenous or intramuscular injections.
French made gel or cream.
- Regulates the metabolism in the cells of the epidermis;
- Cleans ducts from contamination;
- Normalizes the activity of the sebaceous glands;
- Regenerates skin cells.
It is applied 2-3 times a week with a thin layer on clean skin. Do not usd into problem areas. Exclude other external products.
Chlorhexedine for Blackheads
Antiseptic. It has an antimicrobial effect. It is prescribed for the inflammatory process caused by microorganisms. Apply on the affected area to avoid infection of other areas.
These are antibiotics, hormones, retinoids and cleansers.
- Erythromycin is an antimicrobial drug. Apply 1 tablet 2 times a day;
- Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic with a bactericidal property. No more than 2 grams per day;
- Metronidazole is an antibacterial drug. 250 mg 2 times a day;
- Tetracycline – destroys microbes. The dose is prescribed by a doctor;
- Doxycycline is a bacteriostatic drug. 1-2 tablets per day.
Retinoids are used in advanced stages of acne. Hormone pills have an indirect effect: normalize the level of hormones in the body. Assigned by a doctor.
Cleansing tablets cleanse the body of toxins and toxins:
- Activated carbon.
Folk remedies against acne
Regardless of the causes of acne on the face, folk remedies have an effective way of treatment:
- Viburnum. Juice rubbed acne;
- Pumpkin . Wipe the skin with raw flesh;
Honey, butter, onions. Mix in equal proportions, boil. Add flour, mix. From the finished mass, mold cakes and lay on the rash;
- Aloe juice. Heals the skin;
- Celandine. 1 spoon is poured with 0,1 gallon of boiling water. Insist 2 hours. Make lotions for 10 days.
- Cucumbers Grate cucumbers and apply on face for 20 minutes;
- Potatoes. 1 potato, 1 egg white. Mix and apply on the skin for 20 minutes;
- Tomato, olive oil, starch . Mix a spoonful of oil and half a tablespoon of starch with chopped tomato. Apply on face for 15 minutes. Wash off with warm water.
- Lemon. Juice from half a lemon pour a glass of boiling water. Wipe 2 times a day;
- Nettle. A glass of vodka is poured into a glass of nettle. Remove for 10 days in a dark place. Wipe your face 2 times a day. Helps with acne;
- Calendula. 2 tablespoons of dried flowers of grass pour a quarter cup of alcohol 40%. Dilute 1/5 cup water. Insist warm for 2 days. Add 5 g of boric 5% acid. Strain 3 times. Add 0,14 fluid ounce of glycerin. Wipe your face 3-4 times a week.
Acne Water Baths
- To crush 5 grams of string and birch and pour boiling water. Add 3 drops of rose oil. Keep your face above the steam for about 8 minutes. After wipe with lemon juice. Cleanses pores, improves tone;
- Take 5 grams of plantain and linden, brew. Add 7 drops of bergamot oil. Keep your face above the steam for about 8 minutes. Heals comedones, tightens pores;
- 10 grams of marigold make 0,1 gallon of water. Add 5 drops of pine oil. Keep your face above the steam for 3-5 minutes. Wipe the rash with boric alcohol.
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Acne cosmetic treatments
- Darsonval – increasing tone, getting rid of acne and scars, using current pulses;
- Cryotherapy – cold massage, with liquid nitrogen;
- Mechanical cleaning – squeezing acne with sterile tools. The use of masks and special tools.
Nutrition Against Acne
- dairy products;
- rice and buckwheat;
- olive oil;
- green tea and natural coffee;
- fresh greens.
It is impossible:
- sugar, chocolate;
- sweet pastries;
- semolina and millet;
- chips and crackers;
- bananas and grapes;
- smoked meats, pickles, canned food and marinade;
- fatty cheeses and cottage cheese;
- soda, coffee and alcohol;
How to remove acne marks
The following procedures will help get rid of scars remaining after removal of blackheads:
- Laser therapy;
- Chemical peeling;
- Surgical removal;
- Cortisone Cream
- Glycolic or salicylic acid based products;
- Lemon juice;
- Baking soda;
- Proper nutrition;
- Skin care – cleansing, moisturizing, nutrition;
- Home peeling;
- Visit to the beautician;
- Hypoallergenic cosmetics.
You can not do:
- Often touch your face with your hands;
- Squeeze acne on your own;
- Use moisturizing or persistent tones;
- Use cosmetics with glycerin, sorbitol, artificial fat substitutes.
As a prevention of acne, dermatologists recommend:
- Wash your face at least 2 times a day with mild products;
- Sleep. Get enough sleep;
- After cooking, wash your face;
- Avoid the sun.
Recommendations of cosmetologists
After the appearance of acne on the face, finding out the reasons and treatment, cosmetologists advise:
- Drink enough water;
- Do not use foundation, foundation for makeup and powder;
- Follow a diet;
- Get rid of scars only after the course of treatment.
- Use masks and lotions to cleanse the skin.
The appearance of acne on the face is a cause of concern not only for girls and women, the male half of humanity is also concerned about this phenomenon.
But self-medication is highly discouraged, since the consequences, in the form of abscesses, open wounds and the spread of infection, can lead to more serious problems than a damaged appearance. Only an expert can choose an effective remedy, based on the cause of the rash.
Video about acne on the face. Reasons and treatment
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