Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determine

With the skillful use of the advantages of her physique, any woman will feel confident and attractive, and for the right choice of diet, exercise and everyday life, it is enough to learn how to determine your body type and know the permissible weight, the limits of which should be adhered to.

Types and body types

Body types in women are determined on the basis of a genetically formed somatotype (a set of properties and characteristics of the body, laid down at birth).

If a figure (the term refers to the shape of the body) can change under the influence of external factors and lifestyle, then the somatotype is a constant value, on the basis of which the shape of the figure is laid. Therefore, these concepts are not equivalent and differ fundamentally.

The most common is the classification of the female physique, used in American medical practice, according to 3 types:

  • asthenic (thin);
  • normosthenic (proportional);
  • hypersthenic (broad-boned).

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determine

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determine
3 main body types of women according to W. Sheldon

There are quite a few typologies of the physique of the female body in the gallon, and they are based on various classification features. In fact, most of them have similar features, and some concepts are often synonymous with others.

Theory creator Classification feature Body type
V. N. Shevkunenko By anatomical features (by measuring individual parts of the body and the proportions of their ratio).
  • Brachiomorphic;
  • mesomorphic;
  • dolichomorphic.
E. Kretschmer Given the psycho-emotional characteristics and physique.
  • Athletic
  • asthenic;
  • picnic;
  • dysplastic.
W. Sheldon By morphological characteristics (visual assessment of body type).
  • Mesomorph;
  • ectomorph;
  • endomorph.
M.V. Chernorutsky According to the structural features of the skeletal system and muscle tissue.
  • Normosthenic;
  • hypersthenic;
  • asthenic.
V.P. Petlenko According to the structural features of the skeletal system and muscle tissue (a more extended interpretation).
  • Normosthenic;
  • hypersthenic;
  • asthenic;
  • athletic;
  • gracious.
C. Sigo According to the prevailing system of organs with pronounced dominant features (respiration, digestion, nervous, muscular-muscular).
  • Muscular;
  • cerebral;
  • respiratory;
  • digestive.
I. B. Galant According to the addition of the body, taking into account the level of development of muscle tissue and fat, the main proportions.
  • Megalosomal;
  • leptosomal;
  • mesosomal.

To determine the type of your physique (according to the main classification), it is enough to measure the girth of the wrist in the thinnest place. The obtained value is a characteristic of the thickness of the bone tissue, on the basis of which this typology is built. Moreover, the measurement indicators for women and men will differ.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determineInterpretation of measurements:

  • Normostenics – within 5’9 – 6’7 inch (and 7’1 – 7’9 inch in men).
  • Asthenics – less than 5’9 inch (and 7’1 inch in men).
  • Hypersthenics – over 6’7 inch (and 7’9 inch in men).

This is the easiest, but also the most inaccurate way to establish your somatotype. In practice, there are several dozen formulas for determining a woman’s affiliation with one or another type of physique (including online calculators). Most of them take into account the proportions of growth and mass.

So M.V. Chernorutsky proposes to carry out the classification of physique based on the weight, height and coverage of the chest according to the Pinier formula.

Pigne Index = Height – (weight + chest coverage)

For calculation use measurements in inch and pounds. The resulting number has the following interpretation:

  • for asthenics – more than 30;
  • for normosthenics – from 10 to 30 (inclusive);
  • for hypersthenics – less than 10.

So, if a woman’s weight is 110 pounds with a height of 5’6 foot and a chest circumference of 35’4 inch, the figure will be:

  • PI = 170 – (50 + 90) = 30

Accordingly, it belongs to the normosthenic type.

Asthenics (ectomorphs)

Types of physique in women, distinguished by fragility and harmony, are classified as asthenic, which unites under their name synonymous concepts: ectomorphs, hyposthenics. This also includes a graceful physique. Such women are often called thin-boned.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determine

They are characterized by the following features of the body:

  • poorly developed muscle mass;
  • high growth (optional);
  • elongated and most often cold limbs;
  • small breast size;
  • t
    hin and slightly elongated features;
  • thin skin and hair;
  • narrow shoulders.

The small body weight of women of asthenic physique is associated with an accelerated metabolism. Hence the symptoms of cold limbs, a love of sweets and the need for complex carbohydrates.

Body type affects the character of a woman. Ectomorphs differ:

  • touchiness and secrecy;
  • fatigue and an increased sense of anxiety;
  • vulnerability and uncertainty;
  • tendency to depression.

Hypostenics – people with poorly developed muscles, with a predisposition to frequent diseases:

  • colds infections (often with complications);
  • respiratory and digestive diseases;
  • heart disease, hypotension and neurosis.

Hypersthenics (endomorphs)

The exact opposite of the asthenic type. Female hypersthenics are distinguished by large body shapes, which is why this somatotype is also called a picnic, broad-boned or endomorphic.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determineFeatures and external signs of endomorphs:

  • short or medium height;
  • tendency to corpulence;
  • wide waist, hips and chest circumference;
  • feminine round shapes and the presence of a tummy;
  • large breast size;
  • endurance.

A common problem with hypersthenics is the fight against excess weight. The metabolism in women is slowed down, weight is easy to gain and difficult to lose. Therefore, in the diet it is recommended to give preference to protein foods.

Distinctive character traits:

  • kindness and tendency to forgive everything;
  • patience and phlegmatism;
  • openness and non-conflict.

People with similar qualities are often called a person with a wide soul and a big heart. They remain outwardly calm, even in stressful situations, and slowness is an integral character trait. Endomorphs are characterized by physical and emotional stamina. The presence of excess body fat gives an additional burden on the body.

Among the diseases of this type of physique prevail:

  • endocrine system diseases, obesity;
  • respiratory and liver diseases;
  • heart disease and hypertension.

Normostenics (mesomorphs)

The normostenic somatotype occupies a middle position between the two previous extremes in the typology of the female body. It is characterized by harmonious proportions and well-developed muscles.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determineDistinctive features of mesomorphs:

  • medium height (most often);
  • pronounced waist;
  • the width of the shoulders is approximately equal to the hips or slightly larger;
  • tight appearance and elastic skin;
  • normal metabolism;
  • the correct ratio of body parts.

Women with a mesomorphic physique can easily gain weight and then lose it. They are confident in themselves and their appearance, and therefore often overly proud.

Among the character traits prevail:

  • determination and leadership;
  • activity and impetuosity;
  • speed of reaction and determination.

Normostenics are less susceptible to diseases, among which are most often found:

  • diseases of the respiratory system and digestive tract;
  • colds;
  • diseases of the musculoskeletal system and hypertension.

Athletic body type

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determine

Corresponds to the normosthenic type, being a part of it according to some theories.

Among women, it is rare and differs:

  • above average growth;
  • elongated limbs;
  • well-developed muscle mass;
  • narrow hips and a wide sternum;
  • massive bone skeleton;
  • stamina and fit.

Women of an athletic somatotype look large, but not full. Facial features are sharp and angular.

They are strong-willed and decisive in nature, confident in themselves and adhere to an active life position. Usually such people are called heroes.

Cerebral (cerebral) physique

According to the theory of K. Sigo, this type of physique can be attributed to women whose professions are associated with mental activity: scientists, philosophers, teachers, analysts, lawyers, economists.

They are characterized by:

  • tendency to thinness;
  • short stature;
  • poorly developed muscle mass;
  • large head size in relation to the body;
  • narrow hips and shoulders;
  • high forehead and small features.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determinePeople of such a physique are distinguished by irritability and silence, the presence of concomitant neurosis and heart disease.

Respiratory build

Respiratory women are characterized by a wide top and a narrow bottom. Most often, such a type is found in athletes (athletes, swimmers, runners).

Distinctive features of the respiratory somatotype:

  • above average growth;
  • large chest circumference and development of the respiratory system;
  • pronounced waist and narrow pelvis;
  • broad shoulders;
  • elongated sternum and limbs;
  • large facial features associated with respiratory stress (nose, cheeks).

The owners of such a physique are energetic and hardy, with sharp facial features and the same sharp character and impetuosity.

Digestive physique

According to external signs, it is correlated with a hypersthenic physique, and is characterized by:

  • tendency to obesity;
  • the presence of the abdomen and shortened chest;
  • soft features with a wide jaw and lips;
  • wide-body structure;
  • full limbs with poorly developed muscles.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determineWomen of this type are capable of short work with intense loads, they are characterized by fatigue, slowness and stress resistance.

Dysplastic physique

It suggests the presence of visible defects and inconsistencies in the proportions of the body (asymmetry of the limbs, congenital deformations of the skeleton). At the same time, physique features appear at birth or during the first few years of life.

Diseases acqui
red during the life of the disease (diseases of the skeletal system and musculoskeletal system, severe scoliosis, muscle atrophy) or imbalances resulting from mechanical factors (injuries, injuries) are not an indicator of dysplastic somatotype and do not affect its change.

For people with such physique, secrecy, solitude, and silence are characteristic.

Mixed physique

Body types in women, presented in the generally accepted classification of 3 types (hypersthenics, asthenics, hyposthenics), are the extreme points of diametrical differences. However, in life, many women do not fall under the absolute description of one or another somatotype, and the borders between them are arbitrary.

In this case, a mixed body type is implied:

  • ectomorph-mesomorph;
  • ectomorph-endomorph;
  • endomorph-mesomorph.

In the classification, emphasis is placed on the main body characteristics prevailing in one or another somatotype. For example, a woman with a narrow chest, thin features, a small breast size, a pronounced waist and the presence of excess fat deposits in the gluteal (sharply contrasting with the top) is an ectomorph-endomorph.

Weight index

Determining a woman’s weight index or body mass index (BMI for short) allows you to assess the compliance of the main anthropometric indicators of a woman – height and body weight – and determine the need for weight correction by changing the diet or physical activity.

In general, the formula for calculating the mass index has the form:

BMI = M / H2,


  • M – weight, pounds;
  • H2 – height in foot, taken in a square.

For example, if a woman’s height is 5’6 foot and weight is 110 pounds, then:

BMI = 50 / (1.7 x 1.7) = 17.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determineTo correlate this indicator with the norm and establish deviations, the following interpretation of the values is applied (according to WHO):

  • up to 35 pounds / mile? – pronounced deficit weight;
  • from 35 -41 pounds / mile? – deficient weight;
  • from 41 -55 pounds / mile? – weight within normal limits;
  • from 55 -66 pounds / mile? – a tendency to obesity appears;
  • from 66 -77 pounds / mile? – the presence of obesity;
  • from 77 -88 pounds / mile? – a high degree of obesity;
  • from 88 pounds / mile? and more – a pronounced, sharp form of obesity.

Accordingly, the resulting value of 37 pounds / mile? falls under the deficit indicator.

This formula has large errors and does not take into account the features of a particular somatotype, which can significantly go beyond the preset BMI values.

Body height and weight

Types of physique in women have their own characteristics and distinctive features, based on which, the norm of ideal weight for each somatotype is determined. Moreover, this norm may vary depending on the age of the woman.

Height, inch Permissible weight, pounds
for asthenics (ectomorphs) for normostenics (mesomorphs) for hypersthenics (endomorphs)
Up to 148 42.5 – 51.2 45.3 – 54.9 53.4 – 60.0
148 – 150 43.2 – 52.2 49.8 – 57.4 54.6 – 62.4
151 – 153 44.7 – 52.6 51.2 – 57.2 53.8 – 62.7
154 – 159 47.2 – 56.3 52.1 – 61.3 56.4 – 65.8
160 – 163 50.9 – 57.4 54.8 – 68.2 58.8 – 68.7
164 – 169 52.9 – 61.0 57.4 – 65.6 62.2 – 72.4
170 – 173 55.6 – 63.1 60.2 – 68.3 65.1 – 75.7
174 – 179 57.1 – 65.6 62.4 – 71.1 66.6 – 78.4
180 and more 61.2 – 68.7 65.3 – 73.6 69.7 – 81.6

These indicators are suitable for the category of women aged 18 to 35 years. If the age is greater, then the indicated values must be added:

  • 7 pounds for ectomorphs;
  • 9 pounds for mesomorphs;
  • 11 pounds for endomorphs.

In this case, the norm is understood as the average value of the mass, which can fluctuate in the of the interval between the maximum and minimum limit points, and differ depending on the formulas used to calculate the ideal weight.

The classic formula for determining BMI, taking into account the somatotype

The BMI calculation formula recommended by the World Health Organization has been refined over time and takes into account the somatotype of women.

It has the form:

  • for asthenics BMI = (M + 10%) / H2;
  • for normosthenics BMI = M / H2;
  • for hypersthenics (M – 10%) / H2.

Thus, in the presence of a hypersthenic or asthenic physique, a preliminary correction of body weight by 10% is required in the direction of decreasing or increasing, respectively.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determineFor instance:

  • The woman has an asthenic somatotype with a mass of 104 pounds and a height of 5’3 foot.

BMI = (47 + 10%) / (1.62 x 1.62) = (47 + 4.7) / 26244 = 19.7

Accordingly, the weight is within normal limits (according to WHO).

  • A woman has a mesomorphic somatotype with a mass of 139 pounds and a height of 5’5 foot.

BMI = 63 / (1.68 x 1.68) = 63 / 28224 = 22.3

Which corresponds to normal weight.

  • Hypersthenic woman with a weight of 168 pounds and a height of 5’4 foot.

BMI = (76 – 10%) / (1.64 x 1.64) = (76 – 7.6) / 2.69 = 25.4

In this case, there is already a tendency to obesity.

Brock’s Weight Index

The fundamental formula for determining the ideal value of body weight was developed by the French surgeon P. Brock in the second half of the XIX century.

It has the following form (for women):

IV = Growth – 100

For the calculation, they take the growth value in inch.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determineAs the study of somatotyping, significant shortcomings of this method were identified:

  • suitable only for the average woman from 5’1 foot to 5’7 foot tall;
  • not suitable for athletes;
  • not suitable for women suffering from diseases associated with loss or weight gain.

Buck-Brugsch Body Weight Index

The previous formula was finalized by the German scientist T. Brugsch for women whose growth does not fit into the interval 5’1 – 5’7 foot.

  • with growth less than 5’4 foot IV = Height – 100;
  • with growth 5’4 – 5’7 foot IV = Growth – 105;
  • with growth over 5’7 foot IV = Height – 110.

These formulas are suitable for women mesomorphs. In case of asthenic type, it is recommended to add 10% to the obtained IW, and in case of hypersthenic type, subtract 10% of the result.

For instance:

  • A woman has a normal (mesomorphic) physique with a height of 5’5 foot.

VI = 167 – 105 = 137 pounds – ideal body weight.

  • With an asthenic physique with the same height:

VI = (167 – 105) – 10% = 62 – 6.2 = 123 pounds – ideal weight.

  • With a hypersthenic somatotype and a height of 5’3 foot in a woman:

VI = (162 – 100) + 10% = 62 + 6.2 = 150 pounds.

Body and age ketle index

According to A. Ketle, a certain amount of weight falls on 0’4 inch of a woman’s height, which varies depending on the somatotype and age. The formula involves calculating the ideal weight for women of reproductive age from 15 to 40 years.

Types of physique in women: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic, endomorphic. BMI how to determineThe formula is:

  • VI = K x Growth,

where K is the weight coefficient in grams per 0’4 inch, determined by the table.

Age years Weight per 0’4 inch of growth, g
Asthenic Normosthenic Hypersthenic
15 – 18 315 325 355
19 – 25 325 345 370
26 – 39 335 360 380

With growth less than 5’2 foot and under the age of 20 years, it is recommended to reduce the result by 10%.

For instance:

  • The normal weight for a woman who is 5’6 foot tall and 30 years old with a hypersthenic physique will be:

VI = 380 x 170 = 64600 g or 142 pounds.

  • The ideal weight for a 17-year-old girl with a height of 5’4 foot and an asthenic body type is:

VI = 315 x 165 – 10% = 103 pounds.

Humvee Formula

A popular way to determine the ideal weight is calculat
ed in inches and has the form (for women):

IV = 45.5 + 2.2 x (Height – 60)

She suggests that the optimal weight for a woman to be 60 inches (152. 1’6 inch) tall is 100 pounds. If the woman’s height exceeds 60 inches, then for every additional 1 inch there are 5 pounds of weight.

For a better understanding, you can translate the formula into familiar inch, based on generally accepted values of 1 inch = 2. 21’3 inch. It turns out that for every 0’4 inch of growth (if it exceeds 152. 1’6 inch), 5 pounds / 2. 21’3 inch = 2 pounds of mass.

The final formula in inch will look like:

IV = 45.5 + 0.87 x (Height – 152.4)

This option is suitable for calculating the ideal weight with a normosthenic physique. If the woman is an asthenic, then 10% should be subtracted from the result, and if it is a hypersthenic, then add 10% to the total.

For example :

  • A woman 5’4 foot tall has an asthenic body type.

VI = (45.5 + 0.87 x (165 – 152.4)) – 10% = 112 pounds.

  • A woman has a height of 5’6 foot and belongs to the mesomorphic somatotype.

VI = 45.5 + 0.87 x (170 – 152.4) = 134 pounds.

The ideal weight of a woman is a rather vague and arbitrary concept, for the calculation of which many formulas have been invented. At the same time, not all of them take into account belonging to a certain type of physique and are calculated only on the basis of 1–2 values, which is why large errors arise.

Information on the permissible weight norm and knowledge of your somatotype allows you to adjust the appearance, work out the problem areas of the figure, determine the correct lifestyle and prevent the occurrence of many diseases.

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