How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

Well-groomed and radiant health skin is not the result of a genetic predisposition, but in many ways – well-chosen care. And only after learning how to determine the type of facial skin with great accuracy, it will turn out to choose the right care products.

This is especially important in modern realities, when brands offer a huge selection of quality products, and the effect of their use largely depends on individual characteristics.

What determines the type of human skin

Many women believe that they know all the features of their skin. But in fact, identifying them is not so simple. All people have a very similar skin structure. The main differences are in the intensity of the glands, as well as in the percentage of pigment that determines the shade.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

A person is not able to influence these characteristics, but with age, the skin produces less and less sebum, so owners of the fatty type, despite all the difficulties associated with it, have some advantage. The place of residence may also have a certain effect: the percentage of air humidity, the intensity of solar radiation, the quality of the water used for washing.

What skin types are

To date, 3 main skin types are distinguished, but they are rarely found in their pure form.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

Normal type

Normal skin is characterized by optimal functioning of the sebaceous glands. It looks even, smooth and matte, pores are not expressed. There are almost no minor imperfections on such skin, because its balance is not upset.

She is quite resistant to any weather and washing with running water. Most often, this type is inherent in young people with good health, but this does not mean that it can be taken for granted. Normal skin needs attention and proper care.

Bold type

Excessive work of the sebaceous glands leads to the formation of oily skin type. There is a predisposition to enlarged pores and comedones, the skin often shines, can be heterogeneous and have a slightly painful tint.

In some cases, this type can even be detected by touch by sliding fingers over the face. Wrong selection of care products can lead to the fact that the situation will only worsen.

Dry type

It is important to determine the type of facial skin before the first age-related changes appear. And in particular this applies to owners of dry skin: very thin and fragile, quickly exposed to dehydration. Most often it occurs in light-eyed and fair-haired girls. A pink blush often appears on such skin, which, if improperly cleaned, can turn into rosacea.

The environment is very detrimental to it: in windy and dry weather, peeling, small cracks can appear, and as a result of this – early wrinkles. With the wrong selection of cosmetics, the first signs of aging appear ahead of time. Dry skin does not respond well to the use of soap and often has an increased sensitivity to new cosmetics.

How to determine your skin type:

Mixed or combined type

The most common skin that combines signs of dry and oily, which complicates the care of it a little. Most often, oily areas are located on the T-zone, and dry – on the cheeks and in the areas around the eyes.

General recommendations for determining the type of skin on the face

Identify your skin type without outside help.

The main thing is to follow a few simple recommendations:

  1. Before carrying out any of the tests, you need to give the skin a break from cosmetics for 3-4 hours.
    How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type
    Before determining the type of facial skin, you do not need to use cosmetics for the next 3-4 hours.
  2. In the daytime, skin metabolic processes occur more slowly, so it is not recommended to determine the type of skin from 11 a.m. to 5 time.m.
  3. The test is recommended to be repeated every few years, as the skin type may change with age. This can be especially pronounced during the transition period and with the appearance of the first signs of aging.
  4. After establishing a specific skin type, it is important to choose the right care products that match it. Do not completely trust the promoted brands that offer expensive line of cosmetics. Their effectiveness does not always correspond to the price.

Visual definition with a magnifier

The simplest test is visual, and it will require a magnifying glass and a mirror. The test is recommended to be carried out in good light, so that it is easy to identify skin features.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

Going to the mirror, through the magnifying glass should examine the surface of the face and pay attention to the following:

  • pores are enlarged;
  • what is the skin tone;
  • are there any signs of peeling;
  • Does the skin shine (especially the T-zone);
  • whether inflammation is present.

How to determine the type of facial skin, prompted by the listed signs and the above characteristics.


To help answer the question about the type of skin, a simple test will help. When answering questions, write the appropriate letters on a piece of paper. The test will help to determine not only one of the 4 main types, but also to identify sensitive or mature skin. If two or more letters occur an equal number of times, then the skin type can be attributed to the combination.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

In total, you need to answer 50 questions:

  1. Feels like the skin seems dry – E.
  2. On the face and neck often there are spots of a reddish color – E.
  3. After each cleansing procedure, the skin tightens – A.
  4. Washing with soap-containing products brings significant discomfort – E.
  5. The use of a new cosmetic product often causes spots on the skin
    – E.
  6. Facial skin always looks oily or glossy – B.
  7. Any types of cosmetic products do not cause negative effects – B.
  8. The T-zone quickly begins to shine, and you can not do without powder or matting napkins – G.
  9. After applying the powder, after one hour, the face seems heterogeneous – V.
  10. To achieve significant smoothness and softness of the skin, moisturizers – A must be applied at least 3 times a day.
  11. The skin around the eyes loses its elasticity – D.
  12. The frequent appearance of irritations and inflammations causes the need to visit a dermatologist – E.
  13. Small wrinkles appear around the eyes – D.
  14. The skin on the forehead and nose noticeably glossy – D.
  15. The face shines as if it had recently been applied with cream – B.
  16. Creams are absorbed quickly, as if in a sponge – D.
  17. After a walk, a beautiful healthy glow appears on the skin – B.
  18. The use of powder leads to tightness of the skin – A.
  19. Often allergic reactions manifest themselves – E.
  20. Marked wrinkles appeared on the skin – D.
  21. The person is prone to very fast burning – E.
  22. Natural skin tone closer to white – E.
  23. Applying a moisturizer brings significant relief – A.
  24. The skin is matte and almost never shines – A.
  25. In any weather and season, the skin retains a beautiful shade – B.
  26. After returning from, a feeling of tightness appears – A.
  27. Pores on the face are noticeable – V.
  28. Often, rashes in the area of the forehead and nose – G.
  29. Permanent insomnia and sleep problems lead to permanent fatigue – D.
  30. Acne and acne on the face have to constantly fight – V.
  31. The skin seems thick and strong – B.
  32. There is a desire to achieve greater skin elasticity – D.
  33. With prolonged exposure to a heated room, the skin begins to itch strongly – E.
  34. Freckles and other forms of pigmentation manifest themselves – D.
  35. Pores are more pronounced in the central of the face than along the edges – G.
  36. The skin becomes tightened after swimming in the pool – A.
  37. When direct sunlight hits the skin, it always burns – E.
  38. Kidney problems make it necessary to systematically take diuretics – A.
  39. A visit to the solarium and sunbathing under the sun have a pronounced negative effect on the skin – A.
  40. Age – from 35 years.
  41. The skin looks fragile and thin, almost transparent – D.
  42. For washing only soap and running water are used – B.
  43. The tan lies on the skin evenly enough – B.
  44. On the face it is easy to notice signs of insomnia – D.
  45. In summer, the skin seems more glossy than in winter – G.
  46. Almost any universal cream copes with skin hydration – B.
  47. Removing facial hair causes the appearance of red spots that do not go away for a long time – E.
  48. Light day cream does not cope with dryness and peeling – G.
  49. The office can not do without air conditioning – A.
  50. Before important events, acne often appears on the face – E.

For each coincidence of the above statements with the real situation, you should write the corresponding letter, and at the end – calculate their number.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type


  • If the letters “A” predominate , then the skin type is dry. To care for it, you should use products that do not have soap and alcohol in the list of components. For such a skin, high-quality hydration is critical, to achieve which you can resort not only to creams, but also to masks. In areas prone to increased dryness and peeling, it is better to use strong nourishing creams. Greater funds are used at night than in the morning. It is important not to forget about moisturizing the area around the eyes.
  • The largest number of letters “B” indicates normal skin type. It should be applied a couple of times a day to moisturize it, and after washing – tint and moisturize with a light cream.
  • The predominance of the letter “B” indicates that the skin is oily. Untimely cleansing can quickly lead to the appearance of comedones and acne, so you need to thoroughly wash yourself at least twice a day. After washing, it is best to use special tonics designed for oily skin. Throughout the day, a matte lotion or wipes will help to cope with a greasy shine.
  • If the letter “G” is in the lead among the answers, the skin type is mixed. The approach to caring procedures in this case needs an appropriate one: funds for oily skin are used for the T-zone, funds for dry skin are used in all other areas.
  • The letter “D” corresponds to age or mature skin. It is useful for her to use cosmetics rich in vitamins A and C. It is also recommended to purchase a cream containing microcollagen, retinol or hyaluronic acid. With their help, you can increase turgor and renew the skin.
  • The letter “E” indicates the excessive sensitivity that any of the types listed above may have. To reduce the likelihood of allergic reactions, hypoallergenic agents should be used. Regular use of an intensive moisturizer will help prevent the development of rosacea. It is better to abandon the use of tonics completely, replacing them with means without fragrances and dyes.

Using a swipe

How to determine the type of facial skin, if the results of working with the questionnaire seem ambiguous, will tell a simpler test using a napkin. It is carried out several hours after washing. From the use of caring cosmetics before this should refrain.

It is best to carry out this experiment in a prone position, holding a paper towel tightly on your face and waiting about 10 minutes. Those places on a napkin where there are intense traces of sebum are areas of oily skin. The napkin will feel a little damp rather than greasy. If it remains completely dry, then the skin clearly needs high-quality hydration.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

But in most cases, in some areas of the napkin, there are expressed or not very stains, and in the rest it remains dry. This indicates a combination or mixed skin type.

Rotational impact

This test helps to identify the first signs of age-related skin changes, that is, to determine the mature type. Despite the fact that its name seems complicated, the method is very simple: you should attach the thumb to the central part of the cheek and crank it.

If the skin does not curl with this effect, then the skin can be considered young. When wrinkles appear, but quickly disappear, we can talk about the appearance of the first signs of wilting. If the skin is curled without much resistance, this is a sure sign of aging skin.


How to determine the type of facial skin is likely to tell a professional dermatologist. For analysis, doctors use a device called a dermatoscope with a significant increase and various light options.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick,subton, color type

This method is absolutely painless and safe, therefore it is regularly used to assess the condition of the skin and identify a wide variety of dermatological diseases. Usually they resort to it in cases where there are serious problems and the need for medical intervention.

Test for assessing skin turgor

Turgor or tone refers to the internal pressure of skin cells and the stress state of cell membranes. It is used as an indicator of water balance and overall skin health.

To evaluate this indicator, you should grab and squeeze the skin area with two fingers for a few seconds.

Usually used area located under the cheekbones:

  • If the fold is difficult to form, then the turgor can be considered excellent.
  • In the case when the fold is formed, but immediately after straightening the skin straightens, the skin turgor is slightly reduced.
  • If the fold is formed without resistance, and does not straighten out immediately, then there is a significant deterioration of turgor.

What is a skin phototype

The phototype is the degree of sensitivity that the skin has to UV exposure. It is primarily associated with heredity. In modern cosmetology, 6 phototypes stand out.

Why you need to know the skin phototype

Phototypes are directly related to the amount of melanin produced – a substance that protects the skin from negative environmental factors.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

It is very important to timely identify one of them, which is due to the following reasons:

  • only knowing the phototype exactly, many cosmetic procedures and operations can be performed;
  • the selection of sunscreen and the necessary degree of protection directly depend on the phototype;
  • By identifying the phototype, skin cancer can be prevented.

Fitzpatrick Phototype Definition

Despite the fact that in the modern world there are dozens of classification systems for phototypes, the most commonly used simplified methodology, which was developed more than 40 years ago by Thomas Fitzpatrick.

Six types are distinguished in it, and for convenience, a figure corresponds to each:

  1. I – “Celtic” or, in some interpretations, “Scandinavian”. The skin is very light, a shade of milk, sometimes hardly pinkish. She is not capable of tanning, instantly gets burns if you do not use special cosmetics. Owners of this type most often have bright eyes, reddish or blond hair, and there is a tendency to pigmentation.
  2. II – “fair-skinned European.” Features are light skin, hair (no darker than average blond or light brown) and iris. Such people are also very likely to quickly burn out, but there is no red pigment in their skin tone.
  3. III – “dark-skinned European.” The skin of such people is a little dark, sometimes resembling ivory, and hair color can vary from dark shades of light brown to a classic brown hair. The eyes are usually dark, but pigmentation does not appear. Usually, the skin responds adequately to the rays of the sun, but in rare cases it can also burn.
  4. IV – “Mediterranean”. The advantage of this type is that the tan lays down perfectly and persists for a long time. Skin tint is usually closer to swarthy, with olive tones. Hair – black or dark shades of brown, deep dark eye color.
  5. V – “Asian”, it is also called “Middle Eastern” or “Indonesian”. Its representatives have dark brown skin, which is practically not susceptible to the sun. Hair is black and straight.
  6. VI – “African”. These are people with dark, sometimes even close to black skin, never encountering sunburn. They also have dark hair and eyes.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

Based on the skin phototype, you can choose the perfect sunscreen. The SPF level indicated on the package describes how many times it will take to get the same degree of sun exposure that occurs in the absence of protection.

For example, in a person who has a second skin phototype, after 10 minutes of exposure to the bright sun, a burn occurs. If you use a cream with an SPF level of 30, then it will take about 3 hours. Therefore, people with I and II phototype need funds with a higher SPF.

We must not forget that even the highest possible protection level is not able to completely neutralize the influence of ultraviolet radiation.

How to determine skin tone: cold or warm

Psychologically, all people share shades into warmer and colder ones. But in reality, not everything is so simple: not every red is warm, and not every blue can be attributed to cold.

This is due to the fact that in each color you can highlight the tone and subton. If we talk about human skin, then determining its subton is not always easy, so there are several methods that you can resort to.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

Leather with a warm undertone closer to shades of yellow. It does not matter how dark or light it is. Skin with a cold tint is closer to a pinkish or bluish tint. A neutral subton is less common, in which warm and cold shades are present in equal proportions. Unlike the combined skin type, only a very small percentage of people can be attributed to it.

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Jewelry test

One of the most interesting ways to determine skin tone is jewelry. He will need some jewelry, the more the better. They should be worn at the same time, and then determine which ones look best in combination with the skin. If it is gold and gold-plated metals, then the skin tone is warm.

That is why gold jewelry is so loved by women from China and India. If the skin looks better with products made of white metals, then the subton is rather cold. Sometimes it is impossible to answer this question with great accuracy, because all metals look equally harmonious, and then the skin is neutral.

Determination of skin tone by vein color

A very simple visual test will tell you how to determine the type of facial skin in terms of tint. You should carefully look at the color of the veins in the wrist area. If they have a close to greenish tint, then the skin tone is rather warm. If closer to bluish – cold. In
cases where both shades are present, we can talk about a neutral undertone.

White paper check

Often, factors such as the color of hair, clothing, or jewelry interfere with the correct identification of skin affiliation with a particular subtona. You can solve this problem by taking a perfectly white color as a sample.

How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type

A quality sheet of plain white paper with a smooth texture is great for this. Against its background, it is usually very simple to understand which sub-skin the skin belongs to.

Sun exposure

A little inferior to the others in accuracy, but still a popular method for detecting a subtonue is very simple: you need to take into account the usual skin reaction to exposure to the sun. If it easily tans and practically does not blush, then the subtone is closer to warm. Otherwise – to the cold.

But among black women who do not undergo tanning at all, there are many representatives of the cold undertone. In such controversial cases, it is worth doing additional tests.

Makeup and clothes

This test is a bit like jewelry. You need to try on several options for clothes of different colors or try on yourself various makeup options. Warm tones are much more suitable for girls with a warm skin tone, but the opposite rule also works.

Determination of skin tone using draperies

The most accurate method is to bring tissues of various shades to the skin of the face. Unsuitable color fabrics will cast an ugly shadow on your face, and suitable ones will be beneficial to harmonize with it. The right shades of fabric make the appearance more youthful and expressive. At first, this method seems complicated, but over time, the intricacies become more apparent.

This test is important to perform without makeup and in natural daylight.

What is color type

The theory of color types is based on the fact that in the appearance of each girl there are shades that can be compared with one of the 4 seasons. Based on this, you can choose clothes and makeup, emphasizing the features of appearance favorably.

Types of color types

There are 4 color types:

  • The “Winter” color type corresponds to light skin with a cold undertones or dark skin with a touch of olive, which comes in sharp contrast with the color of the hair and eyebrows. Eye color can be dark brown, deep black, cool blue or green. Pigmentation on the face does not appear. Hair and eyebrows are most often brown or black.
  • “Summer” is a softer and lighter color type. Such girls have milky white or olive skin, hair shades of light brown. Hair color does not come in sharp contrast with a skin tone. Eyes – blue or green, hair – from the classic blonde to the deep brown.
  • “Spring” is a very light, airy color type. Its owners have light hair with shades of red or gold, a rich and deep light shade of the eyes. The skin is light and gallon radiates warmth from the inside.
    How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type
  • “Autumn” is a very soft and deep color type. It corresponds to the golden glow of the skin and a very slight contrast with the hair. Brown eyes are the most common, but deep shades of olive and amber are also found. Hair and eyebrows – closer to black, red or brown with a golden tint.

How to determine the color type

Finding out which color type the appearance belongs to is very difficult.

Therefore, it is recommended that you follow these tips:

  1. To come to the most objective result, it is better to call someone for help.
  2. The test should be carried out in good light, best of all – in neutral sunlight.
  3. A room with white walls and a large mirror is best for determining the color type. All bright objects are best removed away.
    How to determine the type of facial skin: oily, dry, combination, normal. Features of determining the phototype according to Fitzpatrick, subton, color type
  4. It is important to get rid of makeup, jewelry and bright accessories.
  5. If the hair is colored, it is recommended to hide it under a neutral color scarf.
  6. Clothing should also be as neutral and discreet as possible.
  7. When determining the color type, one should rely not only on the characteristics of the skin, but also on the natural color of the hair and eyes.

If you rely on the above tips and techniques, you can quickly and easily find out about the most important features of the skin. The correct determination of both the type of facial skin and its other characteristics will greatly simplify the selection of caring procedures and cosmetics, sunscreens, and even clothing and makeup.

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